Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Mikiola fagi

Mikiola fagi (Hartig, 1839)

on Fagus

Mikiola fagi: gradation

Fagus sylvatica, Utrechtse heuvelrug, 5.vii.2021 © Ben van As: gradation

Mikiola fagi galls on Fagus sylvatica

Fagus sylvatica, Hungary, Budapest, János-hegy © László Érsek

Mikiola fagi galls on Fagus sylvatica

two galls

Mikiola fagi gall on Fagus sylvatica

underside of a galled leaf

Mikiola fagi gall on Fagus sylvatica


Mikiola fagi opened gall

opened gall

Mikiola fagi larva


Mikiola fagi galls

Fagus sylvatica, Bussum: at the left the gall of a male, at right of a female larva

Mikiola fagi: female galls on Fagus sylvatica

Fagus sylvatica, Elspeet, Kasteel Staverden, © Hans Jonkman: cluster of female galls

Mikiola fagi gall

Fagus sylvatica, Tilburg


the wall of the very hard gall consists of several layers of high, glassy cells, with an inner lining of much smaller, greenish cells

the floor of the gall room ….

…. is covered by loose, swollen, cells; probably thy form the food for the larva

the gall grows much faster than the larva; therefpore a full grown gall initially contains a minute larve, but later a much larger one, like here

an alaready moribund larva and its small parasitoid

an adult parasitoid, that still was in a shriveled gall

also the occupant of this gall ended badly


When the larva is full grown the gall drops to the grond, and the larva closes the opening with silk. The larva hibernates in the gall and pupates in spring.

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Fagus orientalis, sylvatica, x taurica.

Very rarely also on Castanea.


Mikiola fagi, larva

Fagus sylvatica, Tilburg; larva, ventral

spatula and head of the larva

Mikiola fagi: spatula

prosternum with spatula (from Möhn, 1955a)


Mikiola fagi: pupa

Fagus sylvatica, Roggebotsebos © Arnold Grosscurt

parasitoids, predators

Aprostocetus elongatus, luteus; Eumacepolus saxeseni; Eupelmus urozonus, vesicularis; Omphale lugens; Torymus cultriventris, fagi, fagineus, speciosus.


The species is abundantly common in the Netherlands. It is the more surprising that, as Redfern & Shirley write, the species seems to have gone extinct in the UK.

Galls mainly high up in the canopy (Kampichler & Teschner, 2002a).

The larvae may be killed within their gall by a strong development of the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda.


Abras, Fassotte, Chandelier & Cavelier (2008a), Barnes (1951a), Béguinot (2001c, 2002e,g, 2005a, 2006a, 2007b, 2012a), Bellmann (2012a), Blanes-Dalmau, Caballero-López & Pujade-Villar (2017a), Bruun (2015a), Buhr (1964b), Cilbircioğlu & Ünal (2009a), Cogolludo (1921a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Dziurzynski (1961a,b), Gagné (2010a), de Vere Graham & Gijswijt (1998a), Groom (2011a), Hansson & Shevtsova (2012a), Hellrigl (2006a), Houard (1908a), Ilie & Marinescu (2011a), Kampichler & Teschner (2002a), Kieffer (1901a), Kollár (2011a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon & Romain (2009a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001b), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Mirumian (2011a). Möhn (1955a), Nieves Aldrey (1998a), Pujade (1989a), Pujade i Villar (1990a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roques, Cleary, Matsiakh & Eschem (2017a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a), Seidel (1957a), Simova-Tošić & Skuhravá (2001a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1999a, 2000a, 2004a, 2007a), Skrzypczyńska (2007a), Skuhravá (2006a), Skuhravá, Bayram, Çam ao (2005a), Skuhravá, Karimpour, Sadeghi ao (2014a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1988a, 1992b, 1994a, 1997a,b, 1999a,b, 2005c, 2006a, 2007a, 2008a, 2009b, 2010a, 2021a: 105), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Blasco-Zumeta & Pujade-Villar (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Buhr (2013a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dončev & Dimitrova (1991a, 1992a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý &; Hellrigl (2001a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Massa (2007a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Stănescu (2009a), Tomasi (2003a, 2014a), Unal & Akkuzu (2009a).

Last modified 29.v.2022