Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Cystiphora sanguinea

Cystiphora sanguinea (Bremi, 1847)

on Hieracium, Pilosella

Cystiphora sanguinea: gall on Hieracium spec.

Hieracium spec., Montenegro, Biogradska National Park, 21.vii.2019 ©
Cor Zonneveld

Cystiphora sanguinea: gall on Hieracium spec.

another plant. The “halo” of necrotic, whitish plant tissue that surrounds the gall is in galls an exceptional phenomenon.

Cystiphora sanguinea on Hieracium sp.

Hieracium sp., Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Meerhout, 25.v.2015 © Carina Vansteenwinke

Cystiphora sanguinea on Hieracium sp.

another leaf

Cystiphora sanguinea: galls on Hieracium vulgatum

Hieracium vulgatum, Luxemburg: Kautenbach, 16.ix.2002

Cystiphora sanguinea: galls on Hieracium spec.

Hieracium spec., France, dép. Nord, Zuydcoote, 25.x.2015 © Sébastien Carbonnelle: underside of the leaf showing the larvae


Circular, lower-surface blotch, about 5 mm in diameter, often quite a number together on a leaf. Upper surface wart-like, strongly reddish discoloured, opaque. At the lower surface the mine is closed only by the epidermis. The white larva is easily visible, as is its food: drops of of liquid resulting from external digestion. Pupation in the soil.


Asteraceae, narrowly oligophagous

Hieracium lachenalii & subsp. acuminatum + cruentifolium, laevigatum, murorum, prenanthoides, racenosum subsp. virgaurea, sabaudum & subsp. boreale, schmidtii, scorzonerifolium subsp. flexuosum, umbellatum; Pilosella aurantiaca, lactucella, officinarum, piloselloides subsp. praealta.


Larvae from June-October (Hering, 1957a); two or more generations per year (Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen, 2006a).


BE recorded (Gosseries, 1991c).

NE recorded (de Meijere, 1939a).

LUX recorded (Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz 2001b).

distribution within Europe

From Scandinavia to the Iberian Peninsula and Italy, and from the UK to Roumania (Fauna Europaea, 2007).


Yellowish to orange-red.

Cystiphora hieracii: spatula

spatula with papillae (from Möhn, 1955a)


Cecidomyia, Cystophora, hieracii Löw, 1874; C. pilosellae (Kieffer, 1892).

parasitoids, predators

Omphale brevis.


The biology of Cystiphora species forms a transition between the mining and galling ways of life.


Béguinot (2003a, 2012a), Beiger (1958a, 1960a, 1965a), Bruun (2015a), Buhr (1964b), Cogolludo (1921a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Deckert & Deckert (2016a), Docters van Leeuwen (1936a), Gagné (2010a), Gosseries (1991c), Hansson & Shevtsova (2012a), Hering (1957a), Houard (1909a), Huber (1969a), Kieffer (1888a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001b, 2012a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Maček (2002a), de Meijere (1939a), Meyer & Jaschhof (1999a), Möhn (1955a), Nijveldt & Beuk (2002a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a), Simova-Tošić (2008a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1996a, 2004a 2007a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1988a, 1992b, 1994a, 1997a,b, 1999a,b, 2005b,c, 2010a,b, 2003a, 2012a, 2021a: 130, 131), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Blasco-Zumeta & Pujade-Villar (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Tomasi (2014a).

Last modified 29.v.2022