Cystiphora scorzonerae Kieffer, 1909
Circular, lower-surface blotch, about 5 mm in diameter, usually a number together on a leaf. Upper surface wart-like, strongly reddish discoloured, opaque. At the lower surface the mine is closed only by the epidermis. The white larva is easily visible, as is its food: drops of liquid resulting from external digestion. Pupation outside the mine.
Scorzonera austriaca, humilis.
Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
distribution within Europe
Lativa, Germany, France, Hungary (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
The biology of Cystiphora species forms a transition between the mining and galling ways of life.
Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Gagné (2010a), Hering (1957a), Kieffer (1909a), Máca (2012a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a).