Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Cystiphora sonchi

Cystiphora sonchi (Vallot, 1827)

on Sonchus

Cystiphora sonchi: galls on Sonchus maritimus

Sonchus maritimus, Noordwijk, 5.x.2019 © Arnold Grosscurt

Cystiphora sonchi: galls on Sonchus arvensis

Sonchus arvensis, Dronten, 31.viii.2011 © Arnold Grosscurt

Cystiphora sonchi:  larva in gall on Sonchus arvensis

larva in opened gall

Cystiphora sonchi: galls on Sonchus spec.Cystiphora sonchi

Sonchus spec.,’s-Heer Abskerke, 24.vii.2013 © Lucien Calle: upper side and underside of the same leaf


Sonchus asper Germany (Baden-Württemberg), Baden-Weiler, 27.ix.2001


Sonchus asper, Amstelveen, 27.viii.2007: two vacated mines, lower surface


a young larva in its mine


Circular, lower-surface blotch, about 5 mm in diam, often quite a number together on a leaf. Upper surface wart-like, strongly reddish discoloured, opaque. At the lower surface the mine is closed only by the epidermis. The larva is easily visible, as is its food: drops of liquid resulting from external digestion. Pupation sometimes in the mine, sometimes in the soil. At least two annual generations. Pupa in a white cocoon (Löw, 1888a).

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Sonchus arvensis, asper & subsp. glaucescens, maritimus, oleraceus, tenerrimus.


Larvae from July on (Hering, 1957a); two or more generations per year, pupation of the summer generation(s) in the galls, pupation of the winter generation in the soil (Bayram, Skuhravá & Çobanoğlu (2005a).


BE recorded (Gosseries, 1991c).

NE recorded (de Meijere, 1939a).

LUX recorded (Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz, 2001b).

distribution within Europe

From Scandinavia to the Iberian Peninsula, Italy and Serbia, and from the UK to the Ukraine (Fauna Europaea, 2007).


Initially white, later yellowish.


Cecidomyia sonchi Vallot, 1827; Cecidomyia sonchi Löw, 1875.

parasitoids, predators

Omphale brevis.


The biology of Cystiphora species forms a transition between the mining and galling ways of life.


Bayram, Skuhravá & Çobanoğlu (2005a), Beiger (1970a), Bellmann (2012a), Blanes-Dalmau, Caballero-López & Pujade-Villar (2017a), Bruun (2015a), Buhr (1941b, 1965a), Cerasa (2015a), Chinery (2011a), Cogolludo (1921a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Drăghia (1968a), Gosseries (1991c), Hansson & Shevtsova (2012a), Hering (1957a), Hellrigl (2006a), Houard (1909a), Huber (1969a), Ilie & Marinescu (2011a), Karimpour & Skuhravá (2012a), Kieffer (1888a, 1891a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001b, 2012a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Löw (1888a), Maček (2002a). McClay (1996a), de Meijere (1939a), Nijveldt & Beuk (2002a), Ostrauskas, Pakalniškis & Taluntytė (2003a), Peschken (1982a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Robbins (1991a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a), Schneider (2016a), Seidel (1957a), Simova-Tošić & Skuhravá (2001a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1996a, 2000a, 2004a, 2007a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Postolovski (2007a), Skrzypczyńska (2007a), Skuhravá, Karimpour, Sadeghi, Gol & Joghataie (2014a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1994a, 1997a,b, 1999a,b, 2002a, 2005c, 2006a, 2007a, 2009a,b, 2010a, 2011a, 2021a: 268), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Blasco-Zumeta & Pujade-Villar (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Buhr (2013a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Carbonnelle (2017a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Ebejer (2002a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Hellrigl (2001a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Massa (2007a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Sønderup (1949a), Stănescu (2009a), Sylvén (1960a), Tomasi (2003a, 2012a, 2014a).

Last modified 29.v.2022