Giraudiella inclusa (Frauenfeld, 1862)

on Phragmites

Giraudiella inclusa: gall in Phragmites australis

Phragmites australis, België, prov. Namen, Étang de Virelles © Stéphane Claerebout

Giraudiella inclusa: gall in Phragmites australis

opened

Giraudiella inclusa on Phragmites australis

Phragmites australis, Belgium, prov. Liège, Bas-Oha, Java © Jean-Yves Baugnée: exit openings

gall

Galls protruding in the inner wall of the stem. The gals are very hard, and have about the size of a grain of rice. The solitary larvae are white or pale pinkish. There are two generations. Pupation within the gall; the larvae of the second generation hibernate in the gall, and pupate after the winter.

In the exceptional case that the galls develop on lateral shoots that are parasitised by Lasioptera arundinis the galls are not formed at the inside of the stem, but rather at the outside.

hostplants

Poaceae, monphaag

Phragmites australis.

larva

Giraudiella inclusa: spatula

prosternum with spatula (from Möhn, 1955a)

synonyms

Perrisia inclusa; Giraudiella, Perrisia, incurvans Nijveldt, 1953.

inquilines

Lestodiplodis inclusae.

references

Abraham & Carstensen (1982a), Baetens & De Bruyn (1999a), Bruun (2015a), Buhr (1965a), Gagné (2010a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Houard (1908a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001b), Máca (2012a), Möhn (1955a), Nartshuk (2011a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a), Sánchez (2016a), Schwarzländer & Häfliger (2000a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (2000a), Skuhravá (2006a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1992a, 1997a, 1999a, 2002a, 2004b, 2008a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Carbonnelle (2017a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dončev & Dimitrova (1991a, 1992a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Ebejer (2002a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Elsayed (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Turin-van den Burg (1976a), Waitzbauer (1969a), Waitzbauer, Pruscha & Picher (1972a).

mod 23.v.2018