Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Giraudiella inclusa

Giraudiella inclusa (Frauenfeld, 1862)

on Phragmites

Giraudiella inclusa: gall in Phragmites australis

Phragmites australis, België, prov. Namen, Étang de Virelles © Stéphane Claerebout

Giraudiella inclusa: gall in Phragmites australis


Giraudiella inclusa on Phragmites australis

Phragmites australis, Belgium, prov. Liège, Bas-Oha, Java © Jean-Yves Baugnée: exit openings


Galls protruding in the inner wall of the stem. The gals are very hard, and have about the size of a grain of rice. The solitary larvae are white or pale pinkish. There are two generations. Pupation within the gall; the larvae of the second generation hibernate in the gall, and pupate after the winter.

In the exceptional case that the galls develop on lateral shoots that are parasitised by Lasioptera arundinis the galls are not formed at the inside of the stem, but rather at the outside.


Poaceae, monphaag

Phragmites australis.


Giraudiella inclusa: spatula

prosternum with spatula (from Möhn, 1955a)


Perrisia inclusa; Giraudiella, Perrisia, incurvans Nijveldt, 1953.


Lestodiplodis inclusae.


Abraham & Carstensen (1982a), Baetens & De Bruyn (1999a), Bruun (2015a), Buhr (1965a), Gagné (2010a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Houard (1908a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001b), Máca (2012a), Möhn (1955a), Nartshuk (2011a), Nijveldt (1954a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a), Sánchez (2016a), Schwarzländer & Häfliger (2000a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (2000a), Skuhravá (2006a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1992a, 1997a, 1999a, 2002a, 2004b, 2008a, 2021a: 179), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Carbonnelle (2017a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dončev & Dimitrova (1991a, 1992a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Ebejer (2002a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Elsayed (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Turin-van den Burg (1976a), Waitzbauer (1969a), Waitzbauer, Pruscha & Picher (1972a).

Last modified 28.ix.2021