Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Hartigiola annulipes

Hartigiola annulipes (Hartig, 1839)

on Fagus

Hartigiola annulipes gall

Fagus sylvatica, Bloemendaal, Buitenveldert, Duin en Kruisberg, Niewendam: gall (upper surface) from the side

Hartigiola annulipes gall

split vertically, and cut from its base

Hartigiola annulipes gall

the larva sits usually (always?) in the base

Hartigiola annulipes gall

The gall is attached to the leaf with a narrowed base

Hartigiola annulipes gall

the point of attachement

Hartigiola annulipes gall

vertical section through the base of the gall

Hartigiola annulipes gall

detail; trophic tissue?

underside; the dark centre suggests an opening but that is (still?) closed (detail picture at right)

Hartigiola annulipes young gall

upperside of a very young gall

Hartigiola annulipes gall

somewhat older gall

Hartigiola annulipes gall

same gall, underside

Hartigiola annulipes gall

vertical section

Hartigiola annulipes very young gall

Fagus sylvatica, de Kaaistoep: an even younger stage; © Paul van Wielink

Hartigiola annulipes very young gallHartigiola annulipes very young gall

Fagus sylvatica, Bussum; the same, very early stage; the gall at left is the most advanced of the three. When from that gall the upper epidermis is taken away, it appears that a tuft of white hairs has developed below it (photo at right).

Hartigiola annulipes: young, failed galls

Fagus sylvatica, Dronten © Arnold Grosscurt: young, failed galls

Hartigiola annulipes: young, failed galls

detail of the underside

Hartigiola annulipes remnant of gall in winter

Fagus sylvatica, Denekamp, lg Singrave; when the galls have dropped off in winter, their scars still are easily recognisable in the fallen leaves.

Hartigiola annulipes: onderside leaf Fagus sylvatica

Fagus sylvatica, lg. Welna © Hans Jonkman


Larva white, solitary; a single generation per year; the larva hibernates in the fallen gall and pupates therein also in spring.

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Fagus orientalis, sylvatica.


Hartigiola annulipes: prosternum

the prosternum has no spatula (from Möhn, 1955a)


Oligotrophus fagineus Kieffer, 1909; Phegobia tornatella (Bremi 1847).


the ontogeny of the very first stages of the gall is described by Rohfritsch (2011a).

Galls mainly high up in the canopy (Kampichler & Teschner, 2002a).

The larvae may be killed within their gall by a strong development of the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda.


Abras, Fassotte, Chandelier & Cavelier (2008a), Barnes (1951a), Béguinot (2001c, 2002e,g, 2005a, 2006a, 2007b, 2012a), Bellido, Ros-Farré & Pujade-Villar (2003a), Bellmann (2012a), Blanes-Dalmau, Caballero-López & Pujade-Villar (2017a), Bruun (2015a), Buhr (1964b), Chinery (2011a), Cilbircioğlu & Ünal (2009a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Delvare, Bon, Hérard, ao (2004a), Dietrich (2016a), Gagné (2010a), de Vere Graham & Gijswijt (1998a), Groom (2011a), Hellrigl (2004b, 2006a), Houard (1908a), Ilie & Marinescu (2011a), Kieffer (1909a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon & Romain (2009a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001b), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Mirumian (2011a), Mirumian & Skuhravá (2022a), Möhn (1955a), Nijveldt (1981a), O’Connor & Wistow (1999a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a), Schimitschek (1939a), Seidel (1957a), Simova-Tošić & Skuhravá (2001a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá ; Skuhravý 1996a, 2000a, 2004a, 2007a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Postolovski (2007a), Skrzypczyńska (2007a), Skuhravá (1989a, 2006a), Skuhravá, Bayram, Çam ao (2005a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1988a, 1992b, 1994a, 1997a,b, 1999a,b, 2005c, 2006a, 2007a, 2008a, 2010a, 2012a, 2021a: 106), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Blasco-Zumeta & Pujade-Villar (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Buhr (2013a), Rohfritsch (2011a), Schimitschek (1939a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dončev & Dimitrova (1991a, 1992a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Hellrigl (2001a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Massa (2007a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Stănescu (2009a), Tomasi (2003a), Unal & Akkuzu (2009a).

Last modified 12.v.2023