Mayetiola destructor (Say, 1817)

hessian fly

on grasses

gall

The weakly swollen culm has, just above a node, one or more shallow oval depressions. They are not covered by the epidermis, but generally lie within a leaf sheath. In each a single, 3 mm long, larva is found, that is almost hyaline. Pupation within the gall: the larva forms a dark reddish brown puparium. Usually bivoltine. Heavily infested plants die off.

Only in the first and second instar the larva does feed. The third instar larva remains immobile within the dried larval skin of the second instar, that functions as a temporary cocoon. Before the definite pupation the larvae has to reverse its position to head upwards within the temporary cocoon; in this way the emerging imago will be able to leave the gall.

host plants

Poaceae, oligophagous

Cynodon dactylon; Elytrigia repens; Holcus lanatus; Hordeum murinum, vulgare & subsp. distichon; Phleum pratense; Poa nemoralis; Secale cereale; Triticum aestivum.

mainly in cereal crop species, wheat in the first place.

larva

The larva is described by Ertel (1975a).
Mayetiola destructor: spatula

prosternum with spatula (from Möhn, 1955a)

notes

The Hessian Fly was introduced in Europe from North America in the 19th century. In Europe, but much more in America, an import pest of cereal crops.

references

Buhr (1964b, 1965a), Cheraghian (2013a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Docters van Leeuwen (1936a), Ertel (1975a), Gagné (2010a), Gagné & Doane (1999a), Houard (1908a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001b), Mirumian (2011a), Möhn (1955a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a), Rübsaamen (1895a), Sánchez, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (2012a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (2000a), Skuhravá, Bayram, Çam ao (2005a) Turkey, Skuhravá, Blasco-Zumeta & Skuhravý (1993a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1994a, 1997a,b, 1999a, 2004b, 2012a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Blasco-Zumeta & Pujade-Villar (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Buhr (2013a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Carbonnelle (2017a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dončev & Dimitrova (1991a, 1992a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Massa (2007a), Skuhravý & Skuhravá (1999a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Kettani (2017a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Tomasi (2012a,2014a).

mod 4.iii.2019