Mayetiola destructor (Say, 1817)
The weakly swollen culm has, just above a node, one or more shallow oval depressions. They are not covered by the epidermis, but generally lie within a leaf sheath. In each a single, 3 mm long, larva is found, that is almost hyaline. Pupation within the gall: the larva forms a dark reddish brown puparium. Usually bivoltine. Heavily infested plants die off.
Only in the first and second instar the larva does feed. The third instar larva remains immobile within the dried larval skin of the second instar, that functions as a temporary cocoon. Before the definite pupation the larvae has to reverse its position to head upwards within the temporary cocoon; in this way the emerging imago will be able to leave the gall.
mainly in cereal crop species, wheat in the first place.
The larva is described by Ertel (1975a).
prosternum with spatula (from Möhn, 1955a)
The Hessian Fly was introduced in Europe from North America in the 19th century. In Europe, but much more in America, an import pest of cereal crops.
Buhr (1964b, 1965a), Cheraghian (2013a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Docters van Leeuwen (1936a), Ertel (1975a), Gagné (2010a), Gagné & Doane (1999a), Houard (1908a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001b), Mirumian (2011a), Möhn (1955a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a), Rübsaamen (1895a), Sánchez, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (2012a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (2000a), Skuhravá, Bayram, Çam ao (2005a) Turkey, Skuhravá, Blasco-Zumeta & Skuhravý (1993a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1994a, 1997a,b, 1999a, 2004b, 2012a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Blasco-Zumeta & Pujade-Villar (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Buhr (2013a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Carbonnelle (2017a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dončev & Dimitrova (1991a, 1992a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Massa (2007a), Skuhravý & Skuhravá (1999a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Kettani (2017a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Tomasi (2012a,2014a).