Rabdophaga dubiosa (Kieffer, 1891)
gall (from Kieffer, 1892a)
Salix caprea, France, dép. Côtes-d’Armor, Plédéliac, 31.viii.2019 © Pierre Duhem
gal op Salix cinerea England, Dorset © Jenny Seawright: winter aspect
two typical galls
larva, ventral view
Pear-shaped or fusiform, 1-2 cm long, 5-10 mm wide, all-sided or, often, unilateral swelling of one year old branches, mostly at the base of side branches; the bark is not cracked. If the gall is one-sided it always ends upon a bud. Inside, a number of oval, generally coalescing gall chambers. Per chamber one lemon yellow or light orange larva, or a pupa.
Salix alba, aurita, caprea, cinerea, foetida, helvetica, purpurea, repens.
The most important ones are Salix aurita, caprea, cinerea; Stelter even distrusts the identification in case of references to other species.
Univoltine, pupation within the gall
larva and pupa
Described by Kieffer (1892a) amd Stelter (1980a). The pupa without the usual pair of teeth between the prothoracic horns.
pop © Jenny Seawright
spatula (from Kieffer, 1892a)
prosternum with spatula (from Möhn, 1955a)
Dasineura dubiosa; Cecidomyia, Rhabdophaga, dubia (Kieffer, 1981).
On the surface of this gall dormant buds occur almost exclusively on the upper (distal) part of the gall. Before the adult midges emerge, the pupae force themselves half out of the gall through a dormant bud. (In R. salicis they perforate the gall wall at a randomly chosen point. Kieffer (1891a) points out that species where the pupa bears a pair of teeth make an emergence window at a random spot in the wall of the gall, but that species like dubiosa, missing these teeth, can only emerge via a bud.)
Barnes (1951a), Béguinot (2006b, 2007b), Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Gagné (2010a), Houard (1908a), Kieffer (1891a, 1892a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a), Rübsaamen (1892a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1999a, 2010a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Carbonnelle (2017a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Hellrigl (2002a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Stelter (1956a, 1980a).