Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Rabdophaga dubiosa

Rabdophaga dubiosa (Kieffer, 1891)

on Salix

Rabdophaga dubiosa

gall (from Kieffer, 1892a)

Rabdophaha dubiosa: galls on Salix caprea

Salix caprea, France, dép. Côtes-d’Armor, Plédéliac, 31.viii.2019 © Pierre Duhem

Rabdophaha dubiosa: gall on Salix caprea

opened gall

Rabdophaga dubiosa: gall on Salix cinerea

gal op Salix cinerea England, Dorset © Jenny Seawright: winter aspect

Rabdophaga dubiosa: galls

two typical galls

Rabdophaga dubiosa: gall on Salix cinerea

opened gall

Rabdophaga dubia: larva

larva, ventral view

Rabdophaga dubia: spatula



Pear-shaped or fusiform, 1-2 cm long, 5-10 mm wide, all-sided or, often, unilateral swelling of one year old branches, mostly at the base of side branches; the bark is not cracked. If the gall is one-sided it always ends upon a bud. Inside, a number of oval, generally coalescing gall chambers. Per chamber one lemon yellow or light orange larva, or a pupa.


Salicaceae, monophagous

Salix alba, aurita, caprea, cinerea, foetida, helvetica, purpurea, repens.

The most important ones are Salix aurita, caprea, cinerea; Stelter even distrusts the identification in case of references to other species.


Univoltine, pupation within the gall

larva and pupa

Described by Kieffer (1892a) amd Stelter (1980a). The pupa without the usual pair of teeth between the prothoracic horns.
Rabdophaga dubiosa: pupa

pop © Jenny Seawright

Rabdophaga dubiosa: spatula

spatula (from Kieffer, 1892a)

Rabdophaga dubiosa: spatula

prosternum with spatula (from Möhn, 1955a)


Dasineura dubiosa; Cecidomyia, Rhabdophaga, dubia (Kieffer, 1981).


On the surface of this gall dormant buds occur almost exclusively on the upper (distal) part of the gall. Before the adult midges emerge, the pupae force themselves half out of the gall through a dormant bud. (In R. salicis they perforate the gall wall at a randomly chosen point. Kieffer (1891a) points out that species where the pupa bears a pair of teeth make an emergence window at a random spot in the wall of the gall, but that species like dubiosa, missing these teeth, can only emerge via a bud.)


Barnes (1951a), Béguinot (2006b, 2007b), Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Gagné (2010a), Houard (1908a), Kieffer (1891a, 1892a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a), Rübsaamen (1892a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1999a, 2010a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Carbonnelle (2017a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Hellrigl (2002a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Stelter (1956a, 1980a).

Last modified 25.x.2019