Rabdophaga purpureaperda Barnes, 1935
Under the bark of somewhat older branches live a number of orange or red larvae, each in an elongated cell; the branches are only weakly, allsided, swollen. Before they pupate, the larvae make emergence openings. These “shot holes”, sometimes with protruding pupal skins (or signs of bird predation) are the clearest indication of their presence.
Salicaceae, narrowly monophagous
Barnes (1951a), Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Stelter (1989b).