Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Rabdophaga salicis

Rabdophaga salicis (Schrank, 1803)

on Salix

Rabdophaga salicis on Salix spec.

Salix spec., Spain, Castilla y León, Navarredonda de Gredos, ± 800 m, 17.vii.2022 © Cor Zonneveld

Rabdophaga salicis on Salix spec.

an individual gall

Rabdophaga salicis: gall on Salix aurita

Salix aurita, Hungary, Jánossomorja, 17.viii.2019 © László Érsek

Rabdophaga salicis: gall on Salix aurita

opened gall

Rabdophaga salicis: larva

larva, dorsal

Rabdophaga salicis: larva

larva, ventral

Rabdophaga salicis on Salix cinerea

Salix cinerea, France, dép. Côte d’Armor, Plédéliac, 31.viii.2019 © Pierre Duhem

Rabdophaga salicis on Salix cinerea

vertical section

Rabdophaga salicis: galls on Salix cinerea

Salix cinerea, Sevenum 2.ix.2018 © Arnold Groscurt

Rabdophaga salicis: gall on Salix cinerea

galled midrib

Rabdophaga salicis: gall with larvae

opened gall with two larva

Rabdophaga salicis: larva

larva with spatula

Rabdophaga salicis: gall on Salix cinerea

Salix cinerea, Belgium, prov. Namur, Romedenne; leg. Sébastien Carbonnelle © Gilles San Martin

Rabdophaga salicis galls

Salix cinerea, Hoek van Holland, leg Ben van As

Rabdophaga salicis gall

Salix aurita, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Bovigny, Chifontaine: old gall; © Jean-Yves Baugnée

Rabdophaga salicis pupa

pupa; contrary to the similar Rabdophaga dubiosa the pupa bears a pair of sturdy teeth between the spiracular horns.


Multilocular, mostly all-sided, ± 10 mm thick and up to 50 mm long irregular swelling of a thin branch; sometime several together, than sometime coalescing. Often that bark is cracked and flaky. The dormant buds are irregularly distributed ver the surface. Fresh galls are green, old ones dark brown. Lesser galls also occur in the petioles and even the midrib. The gall chambers lie in all layers of the wood, each one with a single orange larva or pupa. Prior to emergence the puparium work themselves out of the gall at a randomly chosen spot; this in contrast to R. dubiosa, of which the pupa can only leave the gall by way of a dormant bud.

host plants

Salicaceae, monophagous

Salix alba, arbuscula, aurita, babylonica, canariensis, caprea, cinerea, daphnoides, elaeagnos, excelsa, x fragilis, glabra, hastata, helvetica, myrsinites, nigra, pentandra, purpurea, repens.

Mainly Salix aurita, caprea, cinerea, repens.


A single generation per year. The larva hibernates in the gall and pupates there in spring.


the mature larva is described by Nijveldt & Yukawa (1982a).

Rabdophaga salicis: spatulas

spatulas of specimens from Salix aurita (a, d), S. cinerea (b) and S. caprea (c) (from Rübsaamen, 1916a)


See Stelter (1980a). At the base of the prothoracic horns a distinct small tooth (absent in R. dubiosa).


Cecidomyia, Dasineura, Dichelomyia, Rhabdophaga, salicis; Dichelomyia, Rhabdophaga noduli Rübsaamen, 1895.


As a specialised predator lives in the galls Lestodiplosis gammae.

parasitoids, predators

Gastrancistrus salicis; Torymus bouceki, partitus, tipulariarum.


Barnes (1951a), Béguinot (2002e, 2005a, 2006a, 2012a), Bellmann (2012a), Bruun (2015a), Buhr (1965a), Charles, Nef, Allegro, ao (2014a), Cilbircioğlu & Ünal (2009a), Cogolludo (1921a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Deckert & Deckert (2016a), Dietrich (2016a), Docters van Leeuwen (1936a), oğanlar (2017a), Gagné (2010a), de Vere Graham & Gijswijt (1998a), Hellrigl (2010a), Houard (1908a), Kieffer (1895b), Kollár (2011a), Kopelke & Amendt (2002a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001b), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Löw (1888a), Mirumian (2011a), Nijveldt (1977a), Nijveldt & Yukawa (1982a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a), Rübsaamen (1892a, 1895b, 1916a), Simova-Tošić & Skuhravá (2001a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1996a,b, 2000a, 2004a, 2007a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Postolovski (2007a), Skrzypczyńska (2007a), Skuhravá (2006a), Skuhravá, Bayram, Çam ao (2005a), Skuhravá, Karimpour, Sadeghi ao (2014a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1994a, 1997a, 1999a, 2003a, 2010a, 2012a, 2021a: 240), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Blasco-Zumeta & Pujade-Villar (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Carbonnelle (2017a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dončev & Dimitrova (1991a, 1992a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Hellrigl (2001a, 2002a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Stelter (1956a, 1978a, 1980a, 1988a), Tavares (1905a), Tomasi (2014a), Unal & Akkuzu (2009a).

Last modified 27.xii.2022