Spurgia esulae Gagné, 1990
Euphorbia esula, Zwolle, 17.viii.2020 © Arnold Grosscurt
opened gall with larvae
opened gall with cocoons
Euphorbia esula, Wellerlooi, 3.viii.2011
Neither galls nor larvae can be distinguished from those of Spurgia euphorbiae. Larvae yellow to orange when mature, gregarious, active; pupation in a cocoon in the gall.
Euphorbiaceae, narrowly monophagous
Euphorbia esula, lathyris, maculata.
Pecora ao found that in the laboratory the species can complete its life cycle also on E. characias, cyparissias, myrsinites, peplus, and serratula.
spatula with adjacent papillae (from Gagné, 1990a)
Gagné (1990a), Pecora, Pemberton, Stazi & Johnson (1991a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1994a, 1997a, 2021a: 104), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Sobhian, Littlefield, Cristofaro & Mann (2000a).