Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Macrosteles frontalis

Macrosteles frontalis (Scott, 1875)

on Equisetum


Larvae and adults free on the leaves.

host plants

Equisetaceae, monophagous

Equisetum arvense, palustre.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).


Gillerfors (2003a, 2005a), Malenovský, Baňař & Kment (2011a), Malenovský, Kment & Sychra (2014a), Malenkovský & Lauterer (2012a), Mühlethaler, Holzinger, Nickel & Wachmann (2018a), Niedringhaus, Biedermann & Nickel (2010a), Söderman (2007a.

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