Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Trialeurodes vaporariorum

Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood, 1856)

glasshouse whitefly

extremely polyphagous

Trialeurodes vaporariorum: puparium

puparium (from Malumphy, Radonjić, Hrnčić & Raičević)

Trialeurodes vaporariorum on Cucurbita pepo

adults on Cucurbita pepo © Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University

parasite

Puparia white, oval, ± 1 mm, at the undersides of the leaves. Shining marginal wax filaments.

host plants

Abutilon grandifolium; Ageratina adenophora; Ageratum; Amaranthus blitum subsp. oleraceus, cruentus; Angelica archangelica; Atropa bella-donna; Bergenia; Bidens pilosus; Bougainvillea spectabilis; Brassica; Bryonia dioica; Buddleja davidii; Callicarpa bodinieri; Canarina canariensis; Capsicum annuum; Castanea sativa; Catalpa bignonioides; Chelidonium majus; Chrysanthemum; Convolvulus canariensis; Corylus avellana; Cucumis sativus; Cucurbita ficifolia, maxima, pepo; Cyclamen; Epilobium parviflorum; Eucalyptus camaldulensis, gunnii; Euphorbia atropurpurea, balsamifera, peplus, pulcherrima; Forsskaolea angustifolia; Fraxinus excelsior; Fuchsia magellanica; Gardenia jasminoides; Gerbera jamesonii; Gossypium; Helianthus annuus; Hibiscus calyphyllus, cannabinus, rosa-sinensis, syriacus; Humulus lupulus; Hyoscyamus albus; Impatiens noli-tangere; Ipomoea batatas; Lactuca sativa, serriola; Lamium galeobdolon; Lapsana communis; Laurus nobilis; Lonicera nigra; Lycopersicon esculentum; Magnolia; Malva; Marcetella moquiniana; Medicago lupulina; Mentha aquatica, spicata; Nerium oleander; Nicotiana glauca, tabacum; Oxalis pes-caprae; Parietaria judaica; Passiflora; Paulownia tomentosa; Pelargonium; Persea americana; Phaseolus vulgaris; Philadelphus; Polygonum; Punica granatum; Rhododendron indicum; Ricinus communis; Robinia pseudoacacia; Rosa; Salix; Salvia officinalis; Sambucus nigra; Sechium edule; Solanum melongena, nigrum subsp. schultesii, tuberosum; Sonchus asper, oleraceus; Spiraea x vanhouttei; Tagetes patula; Thymus vulgaris; Tilia cordata; Tropaeolum majus;Ulmus minor subsp. canescens; Urtica dioica; Vaccinium corymbosum; Viburnum opulus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

predatoren

Black puparia are parasitised, mostly by Encarsia formosa Gahan, 1924 (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Aphelinidae). This species is employed often in the biological control in glasshouses.

notes

In temperate parts of Europe mainly indoors and in greenhouses, and there a serious pest. Escaped animals are able to build up temporary populations in free nature.

references

Bink, Bink-Moenen & Woets (1980a), Gómez-Menor (1944a), Gómez-Menor Ortega (1954a), Hellrigl (2004a), Hernández-Suárez, Martin, Gill ao (2012a), Huldén (1986a), Jansen (2011a), Jansen & Ivanova (2018a), Klasa & Wiśniowski (2016a), Kozár & Bink-Moenen (1988a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Malumphy (2010a), Malumphy & Mifsud (2012a), Malumphy, Ostrauskas & Pye (2009a, 2010b), Malumphy, Radonjić, Hrnčić & Raičević (2015a), Martin, Mifsud & Rapisarda (2000a), Mifsud (1995a), Šimala & Masten Milek (2014a).

Last modified 31.viii.2020