Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood, 1856)

glasshouse whitefly

extremely polyphagous

Trialeurodes vaporariorum: puparium

puparium (from Malumphy, Radonjić, Hrnčić & Raičević)

Trialeurodes vaporariorum on Cucurbita pepo

adults on Cucurbita pepo © Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University

parasite

Puparia white, oval, ± 1 mm, at the undersides of the leaves. Shining marginal wax filaments.

host plants

Abutilon grandifolium; Ageratina adenophora; Ageratum; Amaranthus blitum subsp. oleraceus, cruentus; Angelica archangelica; Atropa bella-donna; Bidens pilosus; Brassica; Bryonia dioica; Canarina canariensis; Capsicum annuum; Castanea sativa; Catalpa bignonioides; Chelidonium majus; Chrysanthemum; Convolvulus canariensis; Corylus avellana; Cucumis sativus; Cucurbita ficifolia, maxima, pepo; Cyclamen; Epilobium parviflorum; Euphorbia atropurpurea, balsamifera, peplus, pulcherrima; Forsskaolea angustifolia; Fraxinus excelsior; Fuchsia magellanica; Gerbera; Gossypium; Helianthus annuus; Hibiscus calyphyllus, cannabinus, rosa-sinensis; Humulus lupulus; Hyoscyamus albus; Impatiens noli-tangere; Ipomoea batatas; Lactuca sativa, serriola; Lamium galeobdolon; Lapsana communis; Lonicera nigra; Lycopersicon esculentum; Malva; Marcetella moquiniana; Mentha aquatica, spicata; Nerium oleander; Nicotiana glauca, tabacum; Oxalis pes-caprae; Parietaria judaica; Passiflora; Paulownia tomentosa; Pelargonium; Persea americana; Phaseolus vulgaris; Polygonum; Punica granatum; Ricinus communis; Robinia pseudoacacia; Rosa; Salvia officinalis; Sambucus nigra; Sechium edule; Solanum melongena, nigrum subsp. schultesii, tuberosum; Sonchus asper, oleraceus; Tagetes patula; Thymus vulgaris; Tilia cordata; Tropaeolum majus;Ulmus minor subsp. canescens; Urtica dioica; Viburnum opulus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

predatoren

Black puparia are parasitised, mostly by Encarsia formosa Gahan, 1924 (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Aphelinidae). This species is employed often in the biological control in glasshouses.

notes

In temperate parts of Europe mainly indoors and in greenhouses, and there a serious pest. Escaped animals are able to build up temporary populations in free nature.

references

Bink, Bink-Moenen & Woets (1980a), Gómez-Menor (1944a), Gómez-Menor Ortega (1954a), Hellrigl (2004a), Hernández-Suárez, Martin, Gill ao (2012a), Huldén (1986a), Jansen (2011a), Jansen & Ivanova (2018a), Klasa & Wiśniowski (2016a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Malumphy (2010a), Malumphy, Ostrauskas & Pye (2009a), Malumphy, Radonjić, Hrnčić & Raičević (2015a), Martin, Mifsud & Rapisarda (2000a), Mifsud (1995a), Šimala & Masten Milek (2014a).

mod 28.vi.2019