Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Tetraneura ulmi

Tetraneura ulmi (Linnaeus, 1758)

elm-grass aphid, elm sack gall aphid

on Ulmus, primary host plant

Tetraneura ulmi: gall on Ulmus glabra

Ulmus glabra, Zeewolde, Harderbos © Hans Jonkman

Tetraneura ulmi: galls on Ulmus glabra


Tetraneura ulmi: very young vall

Ulmus x hollandica, Biddinghuizen, Spijk- en Bremerbergbos © Hans Jonkman: two very young galls in an already extensively disfigured leaf (May 3)

Tetraneura ulmi: very young gall

same leaf, eight days later; one of the two galls has been aborted

Tetraneura ulmi gall

Ulmus minor, Belgium, prov. Liège, Hergenrath, Hohnbach © Jean-Yves Baugnée; jonge gal

Tetraneura ulmi

Ulmus minor, Amsterdam, Vliegenbos: openings in the old gall

Tetraneura ulmi

when the gall is sliced open the inside is hidden by a dense tuft of wax threads

Tetraneura ulmi

after removal of the wax the winged and apterous aphids are visible

Tetraneura ulmi: gall

Ulmus, Belgium, prov. Namur, Vierves-sur-Viroin, RN Mine de Barytrine © Stéphane Claerebout

Tetraneura ulmi: gall

this gall did not contain hardly any wax

Tetraneura ulmi: young or failed gall

Ulmus, Zwolle © Arnold Grosscurt: young (failed?) gall.

Tetraneura ulmi: underside of a galled leaf

underside of the galled region.

Tetraneura ulmi: old gall on Ulmus glabra

Ulmus glabra, Zeewolde, Harderbos © Hans Jonkman: in mid-July the galls are vacated and withered; the leaf itself remains green.

Tetraneura ulmi: gall on Ulmus glabra

Ulmus glabra, Zeewolde, Harderbos © Hans Jonkman. This picture was taken on August 8th, 2015, at a date that other galls of this species were completely withered: an enigmatic late appearance of the spring generation.

Tetraneura ulmi: gall on Ulmus glabra

same plant and locality, September 18th!

Tetraneura ulmi galls on Ulmus spec.

Ulmus spec., Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Mol © Carina Van Steenwinkel

Tetraneura ulmi galls on Ulmus spec.

Ulmus spec., Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Meerhout © Carina Van Steenwinkel

Tetraneura ulmi galls on Ulmus spec.

also a gall of T. nigriabdominalis!

Tetraneura ulmi on Ulmus spec.

Ulmus spec., Loenen, © Arnold Grosscurt: mass occurrence leading to yellowing and precocious leaf drop. “The soil was littered with these infested leaves.”

host plants

Ulmaceae, narrowly monophagous

Ulmus minor, glabra.

Rarely on U. americana, davidiana, laevis.


the effect of the galling extends far beyond the gall itself, as yellow spots at the upperside of the leaf, and as an extensive hairiness at the underside. Possibly this hypophyllous “erineum” has created the suggestion of the work of a gall mite (Buhr’s # 7325 “unresolved gall mite”).

on Poaceae, secondary host plants


From the second half of the summer apterae live on the roots of various grasses. They are 2-3 mm long, pink, orange or purple on colour and covered with a thin iridescent layer of wax-powder. The siphunculi consist of two low cones.

host plants

Poaceae, oligophagous

Agropyron”, Arrhenatherum elatius; Bromus; Dactylis; Deschampsia; Echinochloa crus-galli; Eragrostis; Festuca ovina; Holcus; Hordeum; Lolium perenne; Phleum pratense; Poa; Schedonorus giganteus; Setaria viridis; Sorghum halepense; Triticum aestivum; Zea mays.

A reference to Anthriscus sylvestris by Wojciechowski ao is improbable.


Byrsocrypta ulmi; Byrsocrypta, Kaltenbachiella, personata Börner, 1950.

Tetraneura longisetosa (Dahl, 1912), only known from the roots of Brachypodium, Deschampsia, and Festuca is closely related, and possibly synonymous, with T. ulmi.


Albrecht (2015a), Barbagallo, Binazzi, Pennacchio & Pollini (2011a), Barbagallo & Massimino Cocuzza (2014a, 2017a), Béguinot (2001c, 2002d, 2003a, 2006c, 2012a), Bellmann (2012a), Blackman & Eastop. Blanes-Dalmau, Caballero-López & Pujade-Villar (2017a), Braggion (2013a), Börner & Franz (1956a), Buga, Zhorov, Leshchinskaya & Stekolshchikov (2016a), Buhr (1965a), Carter & Danielsson (1993a), Chinery (2011a), Chireceanu, Chiriloaie, Teodoru & Sivu (2015a), Cogolludo (1921a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Deckert & Deckert (2016a), Dietrich (2016a), Durak, Durak & Borowiak-Sobkowiak (0000a, 2011a), Ecott (2012a), Heie (1980a), Hellrigl (2004a), Houard (1908a), Ilie & Marinescu (2011a), Kollár (2011a), Koops (2013a), Kowalski (2004a), Lambinon & Schneider (2004a), Lampel (1988a), Lampel & Meier (2003a), Lehmann & Flügel (2012a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Mier Durante, Seco Fernández & Nieto Nafría (1989a), Mifsud, Pérez Hidalgo & Barbagallo (2009a), Nieto Nafría & de Benito Dorrego (1976a), Nieto Nafría, Mier Durante, Binazzi & Pérez Hidalgo (2002a), Osiadacz & Wojciechowski (2008a), Pellizzari (2010b), Pérez Hidalgo, Martínez Peláez & Nieto Nafría (2001a), Pérez Hidalgo & Umaran del Campo (2013a), Petrović (1998a), Rakauskas & Trukšinaitė (2011a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Ripka, Reider & Szalay-Marzsó (1998a), Roskam (2009a), Salas-Remón, Llimona, Lozano ao (2015a) Stănescu (2009a), Suay Cano & González Funes (1998c), Sylvén (1960a), Tambs-Lyche & Heie (1994a), Tavares (1905a), Tomasi (2003a, 2012a), Walczak, Borowiak-Sobkowiak & Wilkaniec (2017a), Weis (1955a), Wojciechowski, Depa, Halgoš ao (2016a).

Last modified 14.v.2023