Forda formicaria von Heyden, 1837

grass-root aphid

on Pistacia, primary host plant

Forda formicaria: gall on Pistacia terebinthus

Pistacia terebinthus, gall (from Houard, 1909a)

Forda formicaria galls on Pistacia lentiscus

Pistacia terebinthus, Spain, Huesca, Embalse de Santa Ana, 15.vi.2019 ©
Cor Zonneveld: secondary galls

Forda formicaria fundatrix galls on Pistacia lentiscus

fundatrix galls

Forda formicaria fundatrix gall on Pistacia lentiscus

detail

Forda formicaria fundatrix galls on Pistacia lentiscus

fundatrix galls, lighted from behind

Forda formicaria galls on Pistacia terebinthus

fundatrix galls and secondary galls

Forda formicaria gall

Pistacia terebinthus, Spain, prov. Léon, San Juan de Paluezas © Nicolás Pérez

gall

There are two types of galls.The fundatrix lives in a small open gall at the base of a leaflet. Her offspring lives in a semicircular upwards rolling of the leaf margin.

host plants

Anacardiaceae, narrowly monophagous

Pistacia terebinthus & subsp. palaestina.

According to Houard also P. atlantica, vera.


on Poaceae, secondary host plants

gall

Aphids at the roots.

host plants

Poaceae, Cyperaceae, oligophagous

Agropyron”; Agrostis; Anisantha sterilis; Avena sterilis; Bromus; Cynodon; Dactylis; Deschampsia; Festuca; Hordeum; Lolium; Ochlopoa annua; Poa; Secale; Setaria; Stipa parviflora; Triticum aestivum; Carex; Cyperus

Nieto Nafría ao report an unusual, but well developed colony on Andryala.

synonym

Pemphigus semilunarius Passerini, 1856, Forda, Tetraneura, semilunaria; F. formicaria subnuda Börner, 1952; F. meridionalis Mordvilko, 1935.

notes

In more northern parts of Europe, where the primary hosts do not occur, the species may live without host alternation on grasses. The aphids on their secondary host plants have a strong association with ants; they also hibernate in ants’ nests.

references

Barbagallo, Binazzi, Pennacchio & Pollini (2011a), Barbagallo & Massimino Cocuzza (2014a), Barbagallo & Pollini (2014a), Barjadze, Japoshvili, Karaca & Özdemir (2014a), Béguinot (2003a), Bellmann (2012a), Blackman & Eastop (2014), Blanes-Dalmau, Caballero-López & Pujade-Villar (2017a), Börner & Franz (1956a), Cogolludo (1921a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Heie (1980a), Houard (1909a), Inbar, Wink & Wool (2004a), Lampel & Meier (2003a), Meliá Masiá (1986a), Nieto Nafría & de Benito Dorrego (1976a), Nieto Nafría, Mier Durante, Binazzi & Pérez Hidalgo (2002a), Petrović (1998a), Pellizzari (2010a), Pérez Hidalgo, Martínez Peláez & Nieto Nafría (2001a), Roberti (1983a), Suay Cano & González Funes (1998c), Tambs-Lyche & Heie (1994a), Tavares (1905a), Tomasi (2014a), Wojciechowski, Depa, Halgoš ao (2016a), Wool & Kurzfeld-Zexer (2008a).

mod 21.viii.2019