Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Forda marginata

Forda marginata Koch, 1857

crusty pistachio-grass root aphid

on Pistacia, primary host plant

Forda marginata gall

Pistacia terebinthus, Spain, prov. Léon, San Juan de Paluezas © Nicolás Pérez


There are two types of galls.The fundatrix lives in a small open gall at the top of a leaflet, generally the odd leaflet of the leaf. Her offspring lives in a reddish, tubular upwards rolling of the leaf margin.

host plants

Anacardiaceae, narrowly monophagous

Pistacia atlantica & subsp. mutica, khinjuk, terebinthus & subsp. palaestina.

Houard also mentions P. vera.

on Poaceae, secondary host plants

Forda marginata: aptera on Ochlopoa annua

Ochlopoa annua, UK © Bob Dransfield & Bob Brightwell, InfluentialPoints


Aphids at the roots.

host plants

Poaceae, oligophagous

Agropyron“; Agrostis capillaris; Arrhenatherum elatius; Avena; Bromus; Corynephorus canescens; Dactylis, Elytrigia repens; Festuca; Hordeum vulgare; Lolium; Ochlopoa annua; Piptatherum miliaceum; Poa; Secale; Triticum.


Pemphigus follicularius Passerini, 1861; Tetraneura follicularia; Paracletus, Pemphigus, retroflexus Courchet, 1879.


See Istrianis femoralis.


In more northern parts of Europe, where the primary hosts do not occur, the species may live without host alternation on grasses. The aphids on their secondary host plants have a strong association with ants; they also hibernate in ants’ nests.


Barbagallo & Massimino Cocuzza (2014a), Barbagallo & Pollini (2014a), Béguinot (2003a), Blackman & Eastop (2014), Cogolludo (1921a), Danielsson (1974a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Eklo & Hofsvang (2008a), Heie (1980a), Houard (1909a), Inbar, Wink & Wool (2004a), Krzywiec (1982a), Lampel & Meier (2003a), Nieto Nafría & de Benito Dorrego (1976a), Nieto Nafría, Mier Durante, Binazzi & Pérez Hidalgo (2002a), Osiadacz & Wojciechowski (2008a), Pérez Hidalgo, Martínez Peláez & Nieto Nafría (2001a), Roberti (1983a), Salas-Remón, Llimona, Lozano ao (2015a), Suay Cano & González Funes (1998c), Tavares (1905a), Tomasi (2014a), Wojciechowski, Depa, Halgoš ao (2016a), Wool & Kurzfeld-Zexer (2008a).

Last modified 2.i.2020