Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Paracletus cimiciformis

Paracletus cimiciformis von Heyden, 1837

on Pistacia, primary host plant

Paracletus cimiciformis: galls on Pistacia terebinthus

Pistacia terebinthus, galls (from Houard, 1909a)

Paracletus cimiciformis

Pistacia terebinthus, Spanje, prov. Léon, San Juan de Paluezas © Nicolás Pérez


the gall reminds of Forda marginata, but never turns red.

host plants

Anacardiaceae, monophagous

Pistacia khinjuk, terebinthus & subsp. palaeastina, vera.

on Poaceae, secondary host plants


aphids at the grass roots, always attended by ants.

host plants

Poaceae, oligophagous

Agrostis; Avena sterilis; Dactylis glomerata; Festuca; Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum, vulgare; Oryza; Poa pratensis; Polypogon viridis; Schedonorus arundinaceus; Stipa capensis; Triticum.


Forda rotunda Theobald, 1914; Pemphigus derbesi Lichtenstein, 1880; Paracletus pallidus Derbès, 1869.


outside of the Mediterranean region, where the primary host plants does not occur, the species lives continuously on grass roots, associated with the ant Tetramorium caespitum. The louse exhibits two forms. The first one feeds on grass roots and produces honeydew upon which the ants feed in turn. The second one resembles an ant larva and produces corresponding signal compounds, and feeds carnivorously upon the ants’ brood (Salazar ao, 3015a)


Béguinot (2003a), Blackman & Eastop (2014), Börner & Franz (1956a), Cogolludo (1921a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Heie (1980a), Houard (1909a), Inbar, Wink & Wool (2004a), Mifsud, Pérez Hidalgo & Barbagallo (2009a), Nieto Nafría & de Benito Dorrego (1976a), Nieto Nafría, Mier Durante, Binazzi & Pérez Hidalgo (2002a), Salazar, Fürstenau, Quero ao (2015a), Schimitschek (1939a), Wojciechowski, Depa, Halgoš ao (2016a), Wool & Kurzfeld-Zexer (2008a).

Last modified 25.xi.2020