Paracletus cimiciformis von Heyden, 1837

on Pistacia, primary host plant

Paracletus cimiciformis: galls on Pistacia terebinthus

Pistacia terebinthus, galls (from Houard, 1909a)

Paracletus cimiciformis

Pistacia terebinthus, Spanje, prov. Léon, San Juan de Paluezas © Nicolás Pérez

gall

the gall reminds of Forda marginata, but never turns red.

host plants

Anacardiaceae, monophagous

Pistacia khinjuk, terebinthus & subsp. palaeastina, vera.


on Poaceae, secondary host plants

gall

aphids at the grass roots, always attended by ants.

host plants

Poaceae, oligophagous

Agrostis; Avena sterilis; Dactylis glomerata; Festuca; Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum, vulgare; Oryza; Poa pratensis; Polypogon viridis; Schedonorus arundinaceus; Stipa capensis; Triticum.

synonyms

Forda rotunda Theobald, 1914; Pemphigus derbesi Lichtenstein, 1880; Paracletus pallidus Derbès, 1869.

notes

outside of the Mediterranean region, where the primary hostplants does not occur, the species lives continuously on grass roots, associated with the ant Tetramorium caespitum. The louse exhibits two forms. The first one feeds on grass roots and produces honeydew upon which the ants feed in turn. The second one resembles an ant larva and produces corresponding signal compounds, and feeds carnivorously upon the ants’ brood (Salazar ao, 3015a)

references

Béguinot (2003a), Blackman & Eastop (2014), Börner & Franz (1956a), Cogolludo (1921a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Heie (1980a), Houard (1909a), Inbar, Wink & Wool (2004a), Mifsud, Pérez Hidalgo & Barbagallo (2009a), Nieto Nafría, Mier Durante, Binazzi & Pérez Hidalgo (2002a), Salazar, Fürstenau, Quero ao (2015a), Wool & Kurzfeld-Zexer (2008a).

mod 5.vii.2018