Smynthurodes betae Westwood, 1849

on Pistacia, primary host plant

gall

There are two types of galls. The fundatrix lives in a small red gall in the midrib. The secondary gall of her offspring is a 2 cm long, strongly swollen, reddened upwards fold of the leaf margin bordering the petiole; also the lateral veins are clearly swollen here.

host plants

Anacardiaceae, narrowly monophagous

Pistacia atlantica, chinensis subsp. integerrima.

Rarely also P. vera.


polyphagous on secondary host plants

gall

Winged adults that emerge from the Pistacia galls settle on the roots of a variety of plants. Here several generations take place, until a generation on Pistacia follows in the end; the entire cycle takes two years; however, see below.

host plants

± dicotyledons, polyphagous

Artemisia; Arctium; Beta; Brassica napus, oleracea; Capsella; Diplotaxis erucoides; Drimia maritima; Gladiolus; Gossypium; Heliotropium; Lycopersicon esculentum; Phaseolus vulgaris; Raphanus raphanistrum; Rumex; Sinapis arvensis; Solanum nigrum, tuberosum; Trifolium; Vicia

Rarely also Cyperaceae, Poaceae.

notes

The species has an almost world-wide distribution. In all regions where Pistacia does not occur the species lives permanently on the secondary hosts.

references

Albrecht (1992a), Barbagallo, Binazzi, Pennacchio & Pollini (2011a), Blackman & Eastop (2014), Franquinho Aguiar, Ilharco, Khadem & Moreira (2013a), Heie (1980a), Inbar, Wink & Wool (2004a), Krzywiec (1982a), Lampel & Meier (2003a), Meliá Masiá (1986a), Mifsud, Pérez Hidalgo & Barbagallo (2009a), Nieto Nafría, Carnero Hernández & Mier Durante (1977a), Nieto Nafría, Mier Durante, Binazzi & Pérez Hidalgo (2002a), Petrović (1998a), Wool & Kurzfeld-Zexer (2008a).

mod 26.xii.2018