Lichtensia viburni Signoret, 1873

viburnum cushion scale

polyphagous on woody plants

Lichtensia viburni: young females on Viburnum

Viburnum, 4.iv.2015 © Roy Kleukers, Nederlands SoortenRegister; det. Maurice Jansen: 3rd instar larvae

Lichtensia viburni: male shield

Olea europaea; male shield © Jeanne Daumal, INRA

Lichtensia viburni: female

adult, but not yet ovigerous female (from Malumphy, 2015a)

Lichtensia viburni: ovisac on Hedera helix

Hedera helix, ovisac (from Jansen, 2009a).

parasite

The eggs that have been deposited in the autumn soon hatch. After a first mobile stage the larvae settle at the underside of the leaves and pass the winter as 2nd or 3rd instar larvae. In the spring the female 3rd instar larvae migrate to young shoots, where they molt for the last time. The male larvae do not migrate, but form a narrow-oval shield, consisting of 9 wax platelets. Under this shield the last moult takes place and the adult, two-winged males fly out to fertilise the females. The fertilised females remigrate to the leaves. Their bodies quickly swell as their eggs start to develop. Around their bodies large quantities of white wax-wol are formed into an ovisac, into which the eggs are deposited. The female then dies; her desiccated body remains in the ovisac that is almost completely filled with eggs and is ± 7 mm long (Quaglia & Raspi).

host plants

Euonymus japonicus; Hedera helix; Ligustrum ovalifolium, vulgare; Olea europaea; Pistacia lentiscus; Rosmarinus officinalis; Viburnum tinus.

In more northern Europe mainly on ivy. In southern Europe a pest on olive.

phenology

In southern Europe two generations, more to the north just one.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2018).

synonyms

Philippia oleae: auct, Quaglia & Raspi.

references

Athanasíou & Zárpas (0000a), Ελένης (2007a), Hellrigl (2004a), Jansen (1999b, 2009a), Malumphy (2010a, 2015a), Masten Milek, Šimala & Markotić (2014a), Masten Milek, Šimala, Pintar & Markotić (2017a), Mifsud, Mazzeo, Russo & Watson (2014a), Pellizzari, Porcelli, Seljak & Kozár (2011a), Quaglia & Raspi (1979a), ScaleNet, Schmutterer & Hoffmann (2003a), Seljak (2010a), Şi̇şman & Ülgentürk (2010a).

mod 19.ii.2019