Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Pulvinaria vitis

Pulvinaria vitis (Linnaeus, 1758)

woolly vine scale, wax scale,cottony grape scale

polyphagous on woody plants

Pulvinaria vitis: female on Pyracantha spec.

Pyracantha spec. © United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs, USDA Agricultural Research Service,

Pulvinaria vitis: females with ovisacs

females with ovisacs (picture from


Scales on the (mainly thinner) branches (larvae on the leaves). Post-reproductive female oval, moderately convex, with transverse wrinkles, dark brown; up to 9 mm long and 7 mm wide. Ovisac forms beneath the female body which is tilted upwards; ovisac strongly convex, white, up to 10 mm long, in April-June. In temperate regions a single generation. Adult females hibernate.

host plants

Acer; Alnus glutinosa, incana; Betula pendula; Carpinus betulus; Corylus avellana; Cotoneaster; Crataegus rhipodophylla; Euonymus; Fagus; Fraxinus excelsior; Malus; Ostrya carpinifolia; Populus alba, nigra; Prunus; Pyracantha; Pyrus communis; Ribes nigrum, rubrum, uva-crispa; Salix caprea, cinerea, glabra; Sorbus aucuparia; Vitis vinifera.

Mainly on Betulaceae, Salicaceae and Rosaceae. Only rarely on Ilex never on Taxus (Jansen).


Pulvinaria betulae (Linnaeus, 1758).

parasitoids, predators

Eunotus obscurus.


Ćwierzyk & Dziedzicka (1987a), Dziedzicka (1988a), Gertsson (2016a), Hellrigl (2004a, 2006b), Hoffmann (2002a), Jansen (1999b, 2000a), Japoshvili & Karaca (2002a), Koteja & Żak-Ogaza (1966a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), van der Linden (2007a), Malumphy (2010a), Malumphy, Ostrauskas & Pye (2008a), Malumphy & Kahrer (2011a), Masten Milek, Ivezić & Šimala (2009a), Masten Milek, Šimala, Pintar & Markotić (0000a), Salisbury & Malumphy (2017a), Schmutterer & Hoffmann (2003a), Schneider & Tanson (2003a), Seljak (2010a), Ülgentürk & Toros (1999a), Żak-Ogaza & Koteja (1964a).

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