Saissetia oleae (Olivier, 1791)

black scale

polyphagous

Saissetia oleae: female scale

female scale © Raymond Gill, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Bugwood.org

parasite

Female scales 2-6 mm, convex, dark brown to blackish, with a characteristic ornamentation; on the branches.

host plants

Argyranthemum frutescens; Atriplex halimus; Ballota hispanica; Casuarina; Cistus; Citrus limon; Cycas revoluta; Euonymus; Ficus carica; Howea forsteriana; Laurus nobilis; Myrtus communis; Nerium oleander; Olea europaea; Phillyrea latifolia; Pistacia lentiscus, terebinthus; Pittosporum; Retama sphaerocarpa; Rhamnus lycioides subsp. oleoides; Ricinus communis; Rosmarinus officinalis; Solanum linnaeanum.

phenology

One to three generations, depending on the climate.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Coccus oleae.

notes

One of the main pests of olive.

references

Athanasíou & Zárpas (0000a), Ελένης (2007a), Gomez-Menor Ortega (1948a, 1957a, 1960a, 1965a), Hellrigl (2004a), Łagowska, Golan, Kot ao (2015a), Malumphy, Ostrauskas & Pye (2008a), Mansour, Mkaouar, Grissa Lebdi ao (2011a), Masten Milek, Šimala & Markotić (2014a), Masten Milek, Šimala, Pintar & Markotić (2017a), Mifsud, Falzon, Malumphy ao (2012a), Mifsud, Mazzeo, Russo & Watson (2014a), Seljak (2010a), Şi̇şman & Ülgentürk (2010a).

mod 19.ii.2019