Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Unaspis euonymi

Unaspis euonymi (Comstock, 1881)

euonymus scale

mainly on Euonymus, etc.

Unaspis euonymi on Euonymus europaeus

Euonymus europaeus, Belgium, prov. Namur, Namur, Mundo, © Stéphane Claerebout: severe infestation

Unaspis euonymi: scales on Euonymus europaeus


Unaspis euonymi on Euonymus europaeus

Euonymus europaeus, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár © László Érsek

Unaspis euonymi: male scales on Euonymus europaeus

male scale

Unaspis euonymi: male scale on Euonymus europaeus

a single specimen

Unaspis euonymi: female scale on Euonymus europaeus

a female scale

Unaspis euonymi: crawler

a still mobile larva (“crawler”)

Unaspis euonymi: galls on Euonymus europaeus

Euonymus europaeus, France, dép. Nord, Zuydcote © Sébastien Carbonnelle

Unaspis euonymi: males on Euonymus europaeus

male specimens


Female scales are relatively larve, dull-brown and cup-shaped; the sit mainly on the branches. Males are much smaller and occur mainly at the underside of leaves; they are covered by an elongated white shield that his three length-ridges.

host plants

Celastraceae etc., polyphagous

Aspidistra elatior; Asplenium nidus; Buxus sempervirens; Cistus; Euonymus europaeus, fortunei, japonicus, latifolius; Laurus nobilis; Pachysandra; Phoenix canariensis.

Euonymus japonicus is the most important host plant by far.


Chionaspis evonymi.


Native in SE Asia; currently a pest species in North America, and an invasive in Europe.


Blay Goicoechea (1992a), Braggion (2013a), Çalişkan Keçe & Ulusoy (2017a), Carnero Hernandez & Perez Guerra (1986a), Fetykó (2014a), Hellrigl (2004a), Jansen (2009a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Kozár, Konczné Benedicty, Fetykó, ao (2013a), Kozár, Paloukis & Papadopoulos (1991a), Malumphy (2010a, 2016a), Malumphy & Kahrer (2011a), Mifsud, Mazzeo, Russo & Watson (2014a), Pellizzari, Porcelli, Seljak & Kozár (2011a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roques, Cleary, Matsiakh & Eschem (2017a), Salisbury, Malumphy & Halstead (2013a), Seljak (2010a), Trencheva, Trenchev, Tomov, ao (2012a), Özyurt & Ülgentürk (2007a).

Last modified 5.ii.2023