Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Reproductive females are globular and sit immobile on the branches of oaks, less often other Fagaceae/ After having been fertilised to produce a large number of eggs in a brood chamber below their body. The larvae (“crawlers”) hatch while the female dies and completely fill her test. Later they disperse and after three moults reach the adult reproductive stage.
The first two larval stages are intensely coloured red. In the Middle Ages thi formed the basis of a red dye, that was obtained by collecting the gravid females.

Last modified 8.i.2019