Porphyrophora polonica (Linnaeus, 1858)
polish cochineal scale, polish carmin scale
adult female, with exuvium (from Köhler)
Adult female oval, deep red; up to 7 mm long; at the root. Frontal feet with striking adaptations to digging. Univoltine. hibernation as first instar larva, still in the egg; adults in June.
Knawel is the main host plant.
For many ages an important source of carmin for the dying of textiles. For its cultivation knawel plantations were in use in north-eastern Europe. The introduction of the cochineal, around 1540, put an end to its importance.
Jansen (1999b), Köhler (2011a), Lauterer (2011b), Malumphy, Ostrauskas & Pye (2008a), Żak-Ogaza & Koteja (1964a).