Sacchiphantes abietis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Picea abies, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Gaume © Thomas Gyselinck. picture made begin-July. In the course of August the gall chamber will open along the red, hairy slits.
Picea abies, Frances, Rhône-Alpes, Haute-Savoie, Les Contamines, July © Arnold Grosscurt
Picea abies, Dronten: spring picture © Arnold Grosscurt
Picea abies, Dronten, Roggebotbos © Hans Jonkman: three incipient galls
detail of a gall after removal of part of the needles
Picea abies, Austria, Gargellen, Montafon © Arnold Grosscurt: contrary to S. viridis, in this species the shoot generally does continue after the terminal bud had been galled.
There are two generations. The first one hibernates as larva, becomes adult in spring and deposits eggs. The feeding activities of the emerging larvae induce the gall formation. The adults that escape from the gall are winged; they disperse only a few decimeters, and place their eggs on the needles. From these eggs than again the hibernating generation develops. In the UK the galls open from (2)17 August – 1 September, sometimes even later. The gall chambers of unripe gall are perfectly closed, larvae cannot go outside. In trees growing in the sun the rim of the gall chamber have a red fringe. Usually several galls together.
Picea abies, engelmannii, glauca, jezoensis, koyamae, mariana, omorika, orientalis, pungens, schrenkiana, sitchensis, smithiana.
The references by Houard to Abies alba and Larix decidua and kaempferi are incorrect.
Contrary to the related S. viridis, no host alternation does occur in this species.
Albrecht (2017a), Barbagallo, Binazzi, Pennacchio & Pollini (2011a), Basky (2015b), Béguinot (2002g,h, 2006c, 2007b, 2012a), Bellmann (2012a), Blanes-Dalmau, Caballero-López & Pujade-Villar (2017a), Börner & Franz (1956a), Buhr (1965a), Carter (1971a), Castresana & Notario (1992a), Chinery (2011a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Covassi & Binazzi (1981a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Durak, Durak & Borowiak-Sobkowiak (0000a), Flügel (2016a), Groom (2011a), Hellrigl (2004a), Houard (1908a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon & Romain (2009a), Lambinon & Schneider (2004a), Lampel & Meier (2003a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Osiadacz & Wojciechowski (2008a), Rakauskas & Trukšinaitė (2011a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Ripka, Reider & Szalay-Marzsó (1998a), Roskam (2009a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Steffan (1962a), Tomasi (2003a, 2012a, 2014a), Wojciechowski, Depa, Halgoš ao (2016a).