Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Sacchiphantes abietis

Sacchiphantes abietis (Linnaeus, 1758)

on Picea

Sacchiphantes abietis: gall on Picea abies

Picea abies, France, dép, Seine Maritime,
Mont-Saint-Aignan, 143 m, © Paul Vignac

Sacchiphantes abietis: apterae

opened gall

Sacchiphantes abietis:  apterae


Sacchiphantes abietis: adult

17.x.2020: adult female having left the gall; the animal is dead, the eggs-filled abdomen has ruptured.

Sacchiphantes abietis gall

Picea abies, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Gaume © Thomas Gyselinck. picture made begin-July. In the course of August the gall chamber will open along the red, hairy slits.

Sacchiphantes abietis gall

Picea abies, Frances, Rhône-Alpes, Haute-Savoie, Les Contamines, July © Arnold Grosscurt

Sacchiphantes abietis gall

Picea abies, Dronten: spring picture © Arnold Grosscurt

Sacchiphantes abietis: galls on Picea abies

Picea abies, Dronten, Roggebotbos © Hans Jonkman: three incipient galls

Sacchiphantes abietis: young gall, dissected

detail of a gall after removal of part of the needles

Sachiphantes abietis: old galls on Picea ables

Picea abies, Austria, Gargellen, Montafon © Arnold Grosscurt: contrary to S. viridis, in this species the shoot generally does continue after the terminal bud had been galled.


There are two generations. The first one hibernates as larva, becomes adult in spring and deposits eggs. The feeding activities of the emerging larvae induce the gall formation. The adults that escape from the gall are winged; they disperse only a few decimeters, and place their eggs on the needles. From these eggs than again the hibernating generation develops. In the UK the galls open from (2)17 August – 1 September, sometimes even later. The gall chambers of unripe gall are perfectly closed, larvae cannot go outside. In trees growing in the sun the rim of the gall chamber have a red fringe. Usually several galls together.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Picea abies, engelmannii, glauca, jezoensis, koyamae, mariana, omorika, orientalis, pungens, schrenkiana, sitchensis, smithiana.

The references by Houard to Abies alba and Larix decidua and kaempferi are incorrect.


Adelges abietis.


Eupithecia analoga.


Aphidoletes abietis.


Contrary to the related S. viridis, no host alternation does occur in this species.


Albrecht (2017a), Barbagallo, Binazzi, Pennacchio & Pollini (2011a), Basky (2015b), Béguinot (2002g,h, 2006c, 2007b, 2012a), Bellmann (2012a), Blanes-Dalmau, Caballero-López & Pujade-Villar (2017a), Börner & Franz (1956a), Buhr (1965a), Carter (1971a), Castresana & Notario (1992a), Chinery (2011a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Covassi & Binazzi (1981a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Durak, Durak & Borowiak-Sobkowiak (0000a), Flügel (2016a), Groom (2011a), Hellrigl (2004a), Houard (1908a), Influential Points (2020), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon & Romain (2009a), Lambinon & Schneider (2004a), Lampel & Meier (2003a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Osiadacz & Wojciechowski (2008a), Rakauskas & Trukšinaitė (2011a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Ripka, Reider & Szalay-Marzsó (1998a), Roskam (2009a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (2021a: 307), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Steffan (1962a), Tomasi (2003a, 2012a, 2014a), Wojciechowski, Depa, Halgoš ao (2016a).

Last modified 11.x.2021