Andricus quadrilineatus Hartig, 1840

on Quercus robur, agamous generation

Andricus quadrilneatus FF gall

gall (from Eady & Quinlan, 1963a)

Andricus quadrilneatus FF gall

gall (from Eady & Quinlan, 1963a)

Andricus quadrilineatus galls

Quercus robur, Dronten © Arnold Grosscurt

Andricus quadrilineatus: gall on Quercus robur

Quercus robur, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Retie, Prinsenpark © Carina Van Steenwinkel: larva

Andricus quadrilineatus: gall on Quercus robur

detail, mandibles

Andricus quadrilineatus: parisitised gall

Quercus sp., Belgium, prov. Namur, Nismes, Fondry des Chiens © Stéphane Claerebout: parasitised gall

Andricus quadrilineatus: parisitised gall

opened gall with parasitoid

Andricus quadrilineatus FM: gall on Quercus robur catkin

Quercus robur, Germany, Saarland, Bexbach © Volker Fäßler. Because of the perfect agreement with a picture in the book by Bellmann this was initially identified as A. malpighii; however, both pictures deviate too strongly from the original descriptions of that species. However, the nearly complete absence of length grooves does not make it a typical quadrilineatus either.

gall

Juicy, unilocular, ovoid gall, about 3-4 mm long, with several shallow length ridges, either attached the a male catkin or to the margin of a leaf. The colour is green, often suffused with red. Generally several galls together. Galls in May-June, mature only in June. The larva hibernates in the fallen gall.

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus petraea, pubescens, robur.


on Quercus robur, sexual generation

Andricus quadrilineatus: gall on Quercus robur

Quercus robur, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Retie, Prinsenpark © Carina Van Steenwinkel

Andricus quadrilineatus: gall on Quercus robur

dissected gall

Andricus quadrilineatus: gall on Quercus robur

pupa in the gall (April 29th)

gall

The sexual generation makes two completely different galls.
The first one is an unilocular catkin galls. The gall is more or less elliptic, ± 2 mm long, yellow to brownish, apically rounded or with a low papilla. The gall is smooth, except for a bunch of white, 2 mm long hairs arising from the top (Nieves Aldrey, 2001a).
The second one is leaf gall, attached to the inner curve of the leaf margin or the end of a side vein. This gall is unilocular, thin-walled, egg-, pear- or cone-shaped, 3-4 mm high, smooth, green (eventually brown) with several irregular vertical red of pale green ridges.

Andricus quadrilineatus gall

The second type of gall of the sexual generation (from Houard, 1908a)

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus petraea, pubescens, robur.

synonyms

Andricus marginalis Schlechtendal, 1870; A. kiefferi Pigeot, 1900 nec Cabrera, 1897; ? A. flavicornis Schenck, 1863; A. verrucosus Schenck, 1863.

notes

In most cynipids that have an alternation of generations the sexual generation develops in spring, while the agamous generation develops in the summer that follows. However, in quadrilineatus both generations, because of their dependence on anthers, are bound to the spring. Moreover, in this species the sexual generation is regularly skipped, one agamous generation following the other.

alternating generations, or sexual systems?

As is shown in the pictures below, the sexual and agamous gall can be very close together, developing in the same flower. It is difficult not to assume that both galls derive from the same oviposition event. This would mean that a female wasp is capable of depositing two types of eggs, each with its unique repertoir of biotic interactions with the host plant.

Andricus quadrilineatus: galls on Quercus robur

Quercus robur, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Mol © Carina Van Steenwinkel

Andricus quadrilineatus: galls on Quercus robur

Quercus robur, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Retie, Prinsenpark © Carina Van Steenwinkel: the agamous gall is still young

references

Béguinot (2000b, 2006a), Bellmann (2012a), Blanes-Dalmau, Caballero-López & Pujade-Villar (2017a), Buhr (1965a), Chinery (2011a), Cogolludo (1921a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Eady & Quinlan (1963a), Hellrigl (2009a, 2012a), Hellrigl & Bodur (2015a), Houard (1908a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Schneider & Chevin (2003a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Meika (2006a), Kwast (2014a), Melika, Csóka & Pujade-Villar (2000a), Nieves-Aldrey (1983a, 2001a), Nieves-Aldrey, Gómez, Hernández Nieves & Lobo (2006a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Tomasi (2014a), Wiebes-Rijks (1976a), Williams (2010a).

mod 25.xi.2019