Biorhiza pallida (Olivier, 1791)

on Quercus, agamous generation

Biorhiza pallida galls

Quercus robur, Hilversum, ‘t Laer; © Jan-Willem Wertwijn

Biorhiza pallida galls

detail

Biorhiza pallida: gall of agamous generation

Quercus robur, Belgium, prov. Namur, Viroinval, Vierves-sur-Viroin © Stéphane Claerebout

Biorhiza pallida: larva

larva

parasite

Irregular group of fused cells, attached to roots. Individual galls are unicellular.The solitary larva is mature in October of the second year

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus frainetto, lusitanica, petraea, pubescens, pyrenaica, robur.

The reference to Cedrus deodara by Houard (1908a) must be a mistake.


on Quercus, sexual generation

Biorhiza pallida galls

Quercus petraea, Belgium, prov. Namur, Baronville © Jean-Yves Baugnée

Biorhiza pallida  young gall

Quercus robur, Enter: section through a young gall © Arnold Grosscurt

Biorhiza pallida old gall, remnants

remnants of an old gall

Biorhiza pallida gall

Quercus robur, Castricum

Biorhiza pallida gall

at the rear of the gall the bud scales are still present

Biorhiza pallida gall

Quercus robur, Bergen op Zoom; young gall

Biorhiza pallida very young gall

very young gall

parasite

Large (up to almost 5 cm), ± globular, spongy, multilocular bud gall; mature in May-June.

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus canariensis, cerris, faginea, frainetto, ilex, infectoria & subsp. veneris, lusitanica, petraea, pubescens, pyrenaica, robur, suber.

synonyms

Biorhiza aptera Bosc, 1791.

inquilines

Curculio villosus; Synergus gallaepomiformis.

notes

Houard attributes a voluminous lateral swelling on the branches of Cedrus deodara to B. pallida. This is as incorrect as intriguing: on Cedrus not a single gall is known!

references

Abras, Fassotte, Chandelier & Cavelier (2008a), Béguinot (2001c, 2002a,e, 2003a, 2006a,c, 2012a), Bellmann (2012a), Blanes-Dalmau, Caballero-López & Pujade-Villar (2017a), Braggion (2013a), Buhr (1965a), Cerasa (2015a), Chinery (2011a), Cogolludo (1921a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Deckert & Deckert (2016a), Eady & Quinlan (1963a), Flügel (2016a), Groom (2011a), Hellrigl (2009a, 2010a, 2012a), Hellrigl & Bodur (2015a), Houard (1908a [“Biorrhiza”]), Ilie & Marinescu (2011a), Katılmış & Kıyak (2008a), Kemal & Koçak (2010a), Kollár (2007a, 2011a), Koops (2013a), Kwast (2012a, 2014a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon & Romain (2009a), Lambinon, Schneider & Chevin (2003a), Marković (2014a, 2015a), Melika (2006a), Melika, Csóka & Pujade-Villar (2000a), Nieves-Aldrey (2001a), Pujade-Villar, Kwast, Thuroczy & Bellido (2002a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Salas-Remón, Llimona, Lozano ao (2015a), Shachar, Melika, Inbar & Dorchin (2018a), Stănescu (2009a), Tavares (1905a), Tomasi (2003a, 2012a, 2014a), Williams (2010a).

mod 22.viii.2019