Cynips quercusfolii Linnaeus, 1758
Quercus, agamous generation
Quercus robur, Bergen aan Zee
Generally the galls remain attached to the leaf until autumn, then drop with the leaf to the ground, but sometimes the galls drop spontaneously (?) already in late summer.
Hollandsche Rading: opened gall; the gall is soft and juicy
the small larval chamber
Wolfheze: hibernation as imago in a gall that has fallen to the ground (image October 7th)
Nieuwendam: extremely heavy infestation of a small tree in the bank of a main highway
Quercus robur, Biddinghuizen, Spijk- en Bremerbergbos © Hans Jonkman: cluster of galls
the leaf around the gall has been completely eaten away. This demonstrates that the gall for its development attract nutritients not so much from the leaf as from the plant as a whole, through the leaf venation/
Galls from July till October, mature in August.
Quercus frainetto, petraea, pubescens, robur.
Rarely also Q. cerris.
Quercus, sexual generation
Quercus petraea, Belgium, prov. Namur, Couvin, Frasnes © Stéphane Claerebout: group of dormant buds with two young galls
Quercus petraea, Belgium, East Flanders, Geraardsbergen, Overboelare-Planken @ Bart Uitterhaegen: as the galls grow older, the colour changes from reddish to dark purple
The sexual generation makes egg-shaped, velvety galls of about 2 mm on resting buds; initially they are red. Contrary to Cynips longiventris, at the base of the gall remnants of bud scales are visible.
Quercus frainetto, infectoria, petraea, pubescens, robur.
Rarely also Q. cerris.
Dryophanta folii Hartig, 1840; D. scutellaris Olivier, 1781; D. flosculi (Giraud, 1868); D. taschenbergi (on Schlechtendal, 1870).
In the agamous generation there is a signficant preference for the larger leaves (Giertych ao, 2013a).
Abras, Fassotte, Chandelier & Cavelier (2008a), Béguinot (2002a,e,f,g,h, 2003a, 2006a,c, 2007b, 2012a), Bellmann (2012a), Ceresa (2015a), Chinery (2011a), Cogolludo (1921a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Dietrich (2016a), Eady & Quinlan (1963a), Ecott (2012a), Giertych, Jagodziński & Karolewski (2013a), Groom (2011a), Guzicka, Karolewski & Giertych (2017a), Hellrigl (2009a, 2010a, 2012a), Hellrigl & Bodur (2015a), Houard (1908a), Ilie & Marinescu (2011a), Katılmış & Kıyak (2008a), Kemal & Koçak (2010a), Kollár (2007a, 2011a), Koops (2013a), Kwast (2012a, 2014a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon, Schneider & Chevin (2003a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Marković (2014a, 2015a), Melika (2006a), Melika, Csóka & Pujade-Villar (2000a), Mete & Demirsoy (2012a), Nieves-Aldrey (2001a), Pellizzari (2010a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Tomasi (2003a, 2012a, 2014a), Williams (2010a).