Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, 1951
oriental chestnut gall wasp
Castanea sativa, France, Département de l’Aisne, Villers-Cotterêts, Forêt Domaniale de Retz © Stéphane Claerebout: bud gall
leaf gall, upperside
opened gall with larva
Castanea sativa, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Retie, Prinsenpark © Carina Van Steenwinkel
Castanea sativa, France, Val d’Oise, Saint-Leu-la-Forêt, 25.v.2018 © Pierre Duhem: gall with three gall chambers
The buds are transformed into more or less globular, smooth, green or pink galls, 5-20 mm in diameter, with one or more chambers; rudiments of leaves often stick out. One generation, pupation in the gall. Old, lignified galls remain for up to two years on the tree.
Castanea crenata, dentata, mollissima, pumila, sativa, seguinii.
Parthenogenetic, no males ever found. Species native in China, Japan, and Korea, recorded in Europe, Italy, in 2002. In 2010 the species was intercepted in the Netherlands in imported plants from Italy; the first spontaneous establishment of the species was discovered in 2015 (Moraal, 2017a). The species forms a serious threat to commercial chestnut growing both in Europe and North America. The fruit production may be reduced by 60-80%.
Botta, Sartor, Torello Marinoni, Dini, Loris Beccaro, Mellano, Quacchia & Alma (2011a), Quacchia, Ferracini & Alma (2011a), Avtzis & Matošević (2013a), Bellmann (2012a), Borowiec, Thaon, Brancaccio, Warot, Vercken, Fauvergue, Ris & Malausa (2014a), EFSA Panel on Plant Health (2010a), Germinara, de Cristofaro & Rotundo (2011a), Hellrigl (2009a, 2010a, 2012a), Hellrigl & Bodur (2015a), Huber & Read (2012a), Kwast (2014a), Moraal (2017a), Pellizzari (2011a), Romani, Rondoni, Gragnoli, Pergolari, Santinelli, Rossi Stacconi & Ricci (2011a), Tomasi (2014a), Viggiani & Nugnes (2010a).