Phanacis caulicola (Hedike, 1939)

on Helminthotheca, Picris

Phanacis caulicola: gall

gall (from Eady & Quinlan, 1963a)

Phanacis caulicola: larva in stem of Helminthotheca echioides

Helminthotheca echioides, UK, Worcester; leg Jerry Bowdrey © Sébastien Carbonnelle

gall

In the pith of the hardly modified stems lie a number of elliptic, 2 mm long gall chambers, each with one larva. Univoltine, hibernation and pupation in the gall. The full grown larva is green.

hostplants

Asteraceae, narrowly oligophagous

Helminthotheca (= Helminthia = Picris) comosa, echioides; Picris hieracioides.

synonyms

Aylax caulicola.

references

Buhr (1965a), Eady & Quinlan (1963a), Ecott (2012a), Nieves-Aldrey (2001a, 2004a), Nieves-Aldrey, Sánchez, Massa & Gómez (2008a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a).

mod 5.i.2019