Synophrus hispanicus Pujade-Villar, 2009
Quercus suber, Spain, Girona, Amer © Jordi Montobbio
Quercus suber, Spain, Girona, Brunyola © Jordi Montobbio: young gall
Quercus suber, Spain, Girona, Santa Coloma de Farners © Jordi Montobbio: as a rule, the gall is partly fused with the shoot
in the young gall most tissue still is soft, with a cheese-like texture
Quercus suber, Spain, Girona, Brunyola © Jordi Montobbio:later it turns stone-hard, except for the outer, greenish layer
More or less globular, unilocular bud gall, eventually greyish brown and up to 2 cm in size. The gall chamber is relatively small, and surrounded by a thick and extremely hard mantle.
Fagaceae, narrowly monophagous
Quercus cerris, suber.
the genus Synophrus belongs to a clade of species with an inquiline habit. Within this clade, Synophrus species are exceptional because they begin their development in very young galls of the Andricus burgundus species group, and cause the host to die; from then on the morphogenesis of the gall is fully determined by the inquiline.
This is the only Synophrus species of which males are unknown.
Nieves-Aldrey (2001a), Nieves-Aldrey, Gómez, Hernández Nieves & Lobo (2006a), Pénzes, Melika, Bozsóki ao (2009a).