Synophrus hispanicus Pujade-Villar, 2009

Hymenoptera, Cynipidae

on Quercus

Synophrus hispanicus: gall on Quercus suber

Quercus suber, Spain, Girona, Amer © Jordi Montobbio

Synophrus hispanicus: young gall on Quercus suber

Quercus suber, Spain, Girona, Brunyola © Jordi Montobbio: young gall

Synophrus hispanicus: gall on Quercus suber

Quercus suber, Spain, Girona, Santa Coloma de Farners © Jordi Montobbio: as a rule, the gall is partly fused with the shoot

Synophrus hispanicus: gall on Quercus suber

in the young gall most tissue still is soft, with a cheese-like texture

Synophrus hispanicus: gall on Quercus suber

Quercus suber, Spain, Girona, Brunyola © Jordi Montobbio:later it turns stone-hard, except for the outer, greenish layer

Synophrus hispanicus: larva in gall on Quercus suber

larva

gall

More or less globular, unilocular bud gall, eventually greyish brown and up to 2 cm in size. The gall chamber is relatively small, and surrounded by a thick and extremely hard mantle.

hostplants

Fagaceae, narrowly monophagous

Quercus cerris, suber.

notes

the genus Synophrus belongs to a clade of species with an inquiline habit. Within this clade, Synophrus species are exceptional because they begin their development in very young galls of the Andricus burgundus species group, and cause the host to die; from then on the morphogenesis of the gall is fully determined by the inquiline.

This is the only Synophrus species of which males are unknown.

references

Nieves-Aldrey (2001a), Nieves-Aldrey, Gómez, Hernández Nieves & Lobo (2006a), Pénzes, Melika, Bozsóki ao (2009a).

14/12/2013

mod 28.vi.2017