Synophrus politus Hartig, 1843
Quercus suber, young and mature gall (from Houard, 1908a)
More or less globular, unilocular bud gall, eventually greyish brown and up to 2 cm in size, often broadly attached to the shoot. The gall chamber is relatively small, and surrounded by a thick and extremely hard mantle. Often the galls bears remnants of several failed leaves. According to Buhr the gall may also occur at the underside of a leaf. Univoltine; hibernation and pupation within the gall.
Fagaceae, narrowly monophagous
Quercus cerris, x hispanica, ilex, ithaburensis, libani, mongolica, petraea, suber, trojana.
the genus Synophrus belongs to a clade of species with an inquiline habit. Within this clade, Synophrus species are exceptional because they begin their development in very young galls of the Andricus burgundus species group, and cause the host to die; from then on the morphogenesis of the gall is fully determined by the inquiline.
In 2009 Pénzes ao demonstrates that S. politus consisted of an aggregate of several distinct species. Older descriptions are not reliable therefore. S. politus s.str. is known from Austria to Turkey and Jordania.
Bellmann (2012a), Buhr (1965a), Cerasa (2015a), Cogolludo (1921a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Hellrigl (2012a), Houard (1908a), Ilie & Marinescu (2011a), Kemal & Koçak (2010a), Melika (2006a), Nieves-Aldrey (1981a, 2001a), Nieves-Aldrey, Gómez, Hernández Nieves & Lobo (2006a), Pénzes, Melika, Bozsóki ao (2009a), Pujade (1986a), Shachar, Melika, Inbar & Dorchin (2018a), Tavares (1905a).