Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Andricus conificus

Andricus conificus (Hartig, 1843)

on Quercus, agamous generation

Andricus conificus gall

gall (from Houard, 1908a)

Andricus conificus on Quercus spec

Quercus spec., Corsica, Vivario, © Zoé Tourrain

Andricus conificus on Quercus spec

the fresh gall is somewhat sticky

Andricus conificus on Quercus spec.

old galls


Galling of an adventive bud on the stem or a thicker branch. The gall is cone-shaped, about 1 cm high and wide, whitish with a reddish or violet reticulate colouration. In the base one wide gall chamber with a single larve; pupation in the ground.


Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus frainetto, petraea, pubescens, robur.

on Quercus, sexuele generation

Andricus cydoniae: gall on Quercus cerris

Quercus cerris, gall (from Houard, 1908a)


Downy hairy, green (ultimately brown and woody), more or less semi-globular gall of about 1.5 cm long at the end of a branch. From the gall sometimes some more or less normal leaves may sprout. The gall consists of a fleshy thick-walled cup, sometimes more a globe with a wide open top, in which a large number of oval gall-chambers is embedded, each with one solitary larva that pupates within the gall.


Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus cerris.


Andricus cydoniae Giraud, 1859; Cynips conifica; Andricus longispinae Kieffer, 1901.


Synergus gallaepomiformis.

parasitoids, predators

Eurytoma brunniventris; Ormyrus pomaceus.


The relation between the agamous and sexual generation has been established by Sottile ao.


Béguinot (2000b), Bellmann (2012a), Buhr (1965a), Cerasa (2015a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Hellrigl (2009a, 2010a, 2012a), Hellrigl & Bodur (2015a), Hesse (1972a), Houard (1908a), Karaca & Katılmış (2020a), Katılmış & Kıyak (2008a), Kemal & Koçak (2010a), Kollár (2011a), Kwast (2012a, 2014a), Marković (2014a, 2015a), Melika (2006a), Melika, Csóka & Pujade-Villar (2000a), Pujade-Villar, Kwast, Thuroczy & Bellido (2002a), Roskam (2009a), Sottile, Cerasa, Massa & lo Verde (2022a), Shachar, Melika, Inbar & Dorchin (2018a), Stone, Atkinson, Rokas ao (2008a), Tomasi (2003a, 2014a).

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