Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Andricus lucidus

Andricus lucidus (Hartig, 1843)

on Quercus, agamous generation

Andricus lucidus: gall on Quercus robur

Quercus robur, Hungary, Kimle © László Érsek

Andricus lucidus: gall on Quercus robur

the gall is developed from a cupula

Andricus lucidus: gall on Quercus robur


Andricus lucidus: gall on Quercus robur


Andricus lucidus: fresh gall on Quercus pubescens

Quercus pubescens, Bulgaria, Varna © Stéphane Claerebout: fresh gall

Andricus lucidus: old gall on Quercus sp.

Quercus sp., Croatia, prov. Istria, Labin © Quentin Hubert: old gall

Andricus lucidus and f. erinaceus

the gall at right has been distinguished as a var. erinaceus (from Houard, 1908a).


Bud gall, less often attached to a cupula. Multilocular gall, bearing about hundred sticky spines, about a cm long, with a globular tip.

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus frainetto, infectoria & subsp. veneris, lusitanica, petraea, pubescens, pyrenaica, robur.

on Quercus, sexual generation

Andricus lucidus FM  gall on Quercus cerris

Quercus cerris gall (from Houard, 1908a)


Catkin gall. Conspicuous, up to 3 cm large bunch of, in principle, discoidal galls that push aside each other; the individual galls are bilocular. They are green at first, with a shiny, waxy surface, reddish and hard later. Galled catkins remain long on the tree.

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus cerris, pubescens, suber.


Andricus aestivalis Giraud, 1859; A. lucidus erinaceus Kieffer, 1901.


Synergus umbraculus.

parasitoids, predators

Bootanomyia stigmatizans; Cecidostiba fungosa; Eupelmus annulatus, azureus, urozonus; Eurytoma brunniventris; Ormyrus nitidulus, pomaceus.


Mediterranean species, that first appeared in the UK in the 1990’s, in both generations.


Antov & Stojanova (2016a), Bellmann (2012a), Buhr (1965a), Cerasa (2015a), Chinery (2011a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Ecott (2012a), Hellrigl (2009a, 2010a, 2012a), Hellrigl & Bodur (2015a), Houard (1908a), Karaca & Katılmış (2020a), Katılmış & Kıyak (2008a), Kemal & Koçak (2010a), Kollár (2011a), Kwast (2012a, 2014a), Marković (2014a, 2015a), Meika (2006a), Melika, Csóka & Pujade-Villar (2000a), Mete & Demirsoy (2012a), Pujade-Villar, Kwast, Thuroczy & Bellido (2002a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roques, Cleary, Matsiakh & Eschem (2017a), Shachar, Melika, Inbar & Dorchin (2018a), Tomasi (2014a), Williams (2010a).

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