Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Cynips disticha

Cynips disticha Hartig, 1840

red wart gall

on Quercus, agamous generation

Cynips disticha gall on Quercus robur

Quercus robur, Frankijk, dép Loiret, Pers-en-Gâtinais © Eugène Vandebeulque

Cynips disticha gall on Quercus robur

gall in side view

Cynips disticha gall on Quercus robur

gall, vertical section

Cynips disticha gall on Quercus robur


Cynips disticha gall

Quercus robur, Dronten © Arnold Grosscurt


De gall is yellow to reddish brown, flat-topped or even navelled, thin but hard-walled, and unique by having two chambers; the larva occupies the lower one. Hibernation in the fallen galls. Galls in June-September, mature in August.

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus coccifera, ilex, lusitanica, petraea, pubescens, robur, suber.

sexual generation


The sexual generation makes thin-walled, unilocular, zeppelin-shaped galls that are attached with broadened point to the leaf margin, usually at the end of the midrib or a thick lateral vein. They are 3 x 5 mm, finely pubescent, without ridges. Young galls are yellowish, later they turn brown.

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus petraea, pubescens, robur.

distribution within Europe

PESI (2024).


Dryophanta disticha.


Askew (1961b), Azmaz (2015a), Azmaz & Katilmiş (2017a), Bayrak (2019a), Béguinot (2002a,e,g,h, 2006a,c, 2007b, 2012a), Bellmann (2012a), Blanes-Dalmau, Caballero-López & Pujade-Villar (2017a), Buhr (1965a), Cogolludo (1921a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Dietrich (2016a), Docters van Leeuwen (1947a), Eady & Quinlan (1963a), Gómez, Hernández Nieves, Garrido Torres, ao (2006a) , Hellrigl (2009a, 2010a), Hellrigl & Bodur (2015a), Houard (1908a), Kollár (2011a), Kwast (2014a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon, Schneider & Chevin (2003a), Melika (2006a, 2018a), Melika, Csóka & Pujade-Villar (2000a), Nieves-Aldrey (1094b, 2001a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Tavares (1905a), Tomasi (2014a), Williams (2010a).

Last modified 2.i.2024