Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phanacis caulicola

Phanacis caulicola (Hedike, 1939)

on Helminthotheca, Picris

Phanacis caulicola: gall

gall (from Eady & Quinlan, 1963a)

Phanacis caulicola: larva in stem of Helminthotheca echioides

Helminthotheca echioides, UK, Worcester; leg Jerry Bowdrey © Sébastien Carbonnelle


In the pith of the hardly modified stems lie a number of elliptic, 2 mm long gall chambers, each with one larva. Univoltine, hibernation and pupation in the gall. The full grown larva is green.

host plants

Asteraceae, narrowly oligophagous

Helminthotheca (= Helminthia = Picris) comosa, echioides; Picris hieracioides.


Aylax caulicola.

parasitoids, predators

Eupelmus ? muellneri, vesicularis; Eurytoma aspila, centaureae, cynipsea; Homoporus subniger; Ormyrus orientalis; Pteromalus hieracii; Spaniopus dissimilis; Stinoplus etearchus, pervasus; Sycophila mayri.


Askew, Plantard, Gómez, ao (2006a), Buhr (1965a), Eady & Quinlan (1963a), Ecott (2012a), Fusu (2017a), Gençer (2014a), Gomez & Nieves-Aldrey (2012a), Nieves-Aldrey (2001a, 2004a), Nieves-Aldrey & Askew (2002a), Nieves-Aldrey, Sánchez, Massa & Gómez (2008a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a).

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