Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Neuroterus tricolor

Neuroterus tricolor (Hartig, 1841)

on Quercus, agamous generation

Neuroterus tricolor FF galls

gall (from Eady & Quinlan, 1963a)


The agamous generation makes white or reddish lens- of dish-shaped galls at the underside of a leaf. They resemble those of Neuroterus quercusbaccarum, but are appreciably smaller: 2-3 mm. Galls from July till September, mature in August.


Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus frainetto, lusitanica, petraea, pubescens, pyrenaica, robur.

on Quercus, sexual generation

Neuroterus tricolor: galls on Quercus pubescens

Quercus pubescens, France, dépt. Var, Le Pradet, lieu-dit “Lou Pigno”, 25.viii.2015 © Stéphane Claerbout

Neuroterus tricolor: galls on Quercus pubescens

at the upper side just a slight discolouration is recognisable

Neuroterus tricolor: galls on Quercus pubescens

the galls

Neuroterus tricolor gall

Quercus robur, Reusel, young gall, c. 2 mm


Small pilose warts, often gregarious. Galls from May till August, mature in June.


Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus frainetto. ilex, lusitanica, petraea, pubescens, pyrenaica, robur, suber.


Neuroterus tricolor ulysipponensis Tavares, 1928; N. fumipennis Hartig, 1841.

parasitoids, predators

Eurytoma brunniventris; Mesopolobus tibialis; Ormyrus pomaceus.


the gall mainly occur on the young leaves of the lammas growth (Buhr).


Askew (1961b), Béguinot (2007b), Bellmann (2012a), Buhr (1965a),Burton, Ellis & Schneider (2022a), Cerasa (2015a), Chinery (2011a), Cogolludo (1921a), Eady & Quinlan (1963a), Gómez, Hernández Nieves, Garrido Torres, ao (2006a), Hellrigl (2009a), Hellrigl & Bodur (2015a), Houard (1908a), Karaca & Katılmış (2020a), Katılmış &a Kıyak (2008a), Kemal & Koçak (2010a), Kwast (2012a, 2014a), Lambinon, Schneider & Chevin (2003a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Melika (2006a), Nieves-Aldrey (1984b, 1998a, 2001a), Nieves-Aldrey, Gómez, Hernández Nieves & Lobo (2006a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Tavares (1905a), Tomasi (2014a), Vilarrubia Garet (1956a), Williams (2010a).

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