Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phanacis hypochoeridis

Phanacis hypochoeridis (Kieffer, 1887)

on Hypochaeris

Phanacis hypochoeridis: gall on Hypochaeris cf glabra

Hypochaeris cf glabra, Spain, Montes de Toledo, Parque Nacional de Cabañeros © Sébastien Carbonnelle

Phanacis hypochoeridis: gall on Hypochaeris radicata

Hypochaeris radicata © Roelof Jan Koops

gall

Conspicuous, up to 5 cm long swelling of the stem (sometime petiole), succulent at first, later hard, surfacece often wrinkled. Within c. 50 gall chambers, each with one larva. Univoltine, hibernation and pupation in the gall.

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Hypochaeris achyrophorus, glabra, laevigata, radicata.

synonyms

Aulacidia, Aulax, hypochoeridis (hypochaeridis).

parasitoids, predators

Eupelmus atropurpureus, vesicularis, Eurytoma cynipsea, hypochoeridis, timaspidis; Glyphomerus tibialis; Homoporus subniger; Idiomacromerus urospermi; Leptomeraporus nicaee; Mesopolobus mediterraneus; Pseuderimerus urospermi; Pteromalus hieracii, vibulenus; Stinoplus etearchus; Syntomopus incisus; Thaumatorymus notanisoides.

notes

the larva is described by Gómez Sanchez (2008a).

references

Askew, Plantard, Gómez, ao (2006a), Blanes-Dalmau, Caballero-López & Pujade-Villar (2017a), Buhr (1964a), Cerasa (2015a), Chinery (2011a), Cogolludo (1921a), Dauhpin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Eady & Quinlan (1963a), Fusu (2017a), Gómez, Hernández Nieves, Garrido Torres, ao (2006a), Gomez & Nieves-Aldrey (2012a), Gómez Sanchez (2008a), Hellrigl (2009a), Hellrigl & Bodur (2015a), Houard (1909a), Koops (2013a), Kwast (2012a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Melika (2006a), Nieves-Aldrey (1984a, 2001a, 2008a), Nieves-Aldrey & Askew (2002a), Nieves-Aldrey, Gómez, Hernández Nieves & Lobo (2006a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Tavares (1905a), Tomasi (2014a), Wiśniowski & Jirak-Leszczyńska (2021a).

Last modified 20.vi.2022