Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Synophrus politus

Synophrus politus Hartig, 1843

on Quercus

Synophrus politus galls on Quercus suber

Quercus suber, young and mature gall (from Houard, 1908a)


More or less globular, unilocular bud gall, eventually greyish brown and up to 2 cm in size, often broadly attached to the shoot. The gall chamber is relatively small, and surrounded by a thick and extremely hard mantle. Often the galls bears remnants of several failed leaves. According to Buhr the gall may also occur at the underside of a leaf. Univoltine; hibernation and pupation within the gall.

host plants

Fagaceae, narrowly monophagous

Quercus cerris, x hispanica, ilex, ithaburensis, libani, mongolica, petraea, suber, trojana.


the genus Synophrus belongs to a clade of species with an inquiline habit. Within this clade, Synophrus species are exceptional because they begin their development in very young galls of the Andricus burgundus species group, and cause the host to die; from then on the morphogenesis of the gall is fully determined by the inquiline.


In 2009 Pénzes ao demonstrates that S. politus consisted of an aggregate of several distinct species. Older descriptions are not reliable therefore. S. politus s.str. is known from Austria to Turkey and Jordania.

parasitoids, predators

Torymus cerri.


Bellmann (2012a), Buhr (1965a), Cerasa (2015a), Cogolludo (1921a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), de Vere Graham & Gijswijt (1998a) , Hellrigl (2012a), Houard (1908a), Ilie & Marinescu (2011a), Kemal & Koçak (2010a), Melika (2006a), Nieves-Aldrey (1981a, 2001a), Nieves-Aldrey, Gómez, Hernández Nieves & Lobo (2006a), Pénzes, Melika, Bozsóki ao (2009a), Pujade (1986a), Shachar, Melika, Inbar & Dorchin (2018a), Tavares (1905a).

Last modified 30.iv.2022