Heterarthrus nemoratus (Fallén, 1808)

Heterarthrus nemoratus mine

Betula pubescens, Mantingerzand

Heterarthrus nemoratus: mine on Betula pendula

Betula pendula, België, prov. Limburg, Koersel © Carina Van Steenwinkel

Heterarthrus nemoratus: larva

same mine, lighted from behind

Heterarthrus nemoratus: mine on Betula pendula

larva in the mine; the arrow points to a slit along the midrib, probably used the eject frass

Heterarthrus nemoratus: cocoon in Betula pendula

Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Mol © Carina Van Steenwinkel:leaf with old mine and cocoon

mine

Large blotch, begining at the leaf margin (there no accumulation of frass). The oldest part of the mjine with a charcteristic, wine red colour. Most of the frass is ejected through a narrow slit in the leaf margin (sometimes also along the midrib). The larva makes an discoidal cocoon within the mine. Hiberination in the larval stage.

hostplants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula humilis, pubescens, pendula.

phenology

Larvae in August – September (Altenhofer, 1980b).

BENELUX

BE recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

NE recorded (van Ooststroom 1976a); rare.

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

distribution within Europe

From Sweden and Finland to the Pyrenees, Italy (not quite cetain) and Romania, and from Ireland to the Ukraine (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

larva

Ripper (1931a), Lorenz & Kraus (1957a), Lindquist (1959a) and Smith (1971a) describe the larva. Thoracal feet reduced to stumps. Prosternum with a large dark patch; meso- and metasternum with a small dark spot. Pronotum with a large rectangular black sclerite. In the prepual stage, when the larva does not feed any more, all pigmentation has disappeared.

synonyms

Phyllotoma nemorata.

notes

Around 1927 accidentally introduced into the United States New Hampshire, Massachusetts), causing large-sclae damage to the birch forests (“In areas where white birch was the predominating tree whole hillsides and valleys appeared as if fire had swept through the stands”) (Ripper, 1931a).

The specis parthenogenetic (Brown 1959a). Preference for the older leaves (Lindquist, 1959a).

references

Altenhofer (1980b, 2003a), Blank ao (1998a), Brown (1959a), Buhr (1941a, 1964a), Digweed ao (2009a), Heibo, Lønnve, Barstad ao (2014a), Hering (1927b, 1937c, 1957a), Kirichenko, Augustin & Kenis (2018a), Kozlov, van Nieukerken, Zverev & Zvereva (2013a), Lindquist (1959a), Liston (1995b), Lorenz & Kraus (1957a), Michalska (1976a), Nyman, Zinovjev, Vikberg & Farrell (2006a), van Ooststroom (1976a), Pieronek (1962a), Pieronek & Soltyk (1993a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Ripper (1931a), Robbins (1991a), Scobiola-Palade (1974a), Skala (1951a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Smith (1971a), Sønderup (1949a), Taeger, Blank & Liston (2006a), Taeger ao (1998a), Viramo (1969a), Wahlgren (1944a, 1963a).

mod 2.vii.2018