Heptamelus ochroleucus (Stephens, 1835)

mine

Long corridor iun the petiole, descendind down to witihn the leaf sheathh, then running upwards from some distance. The petiole turns black, and the leaf is malformed and crumpled. Frass in coarse grains. Locally, mainly at the concave side of the petiole, the mine is situated just below the epidermis (contrary to the mine of Chirosia griseifrons). The larva vacates the mine just before pupation through an exit opening at the outside of the leaf sheathh (de Meijere, 1911a, Lorenz & Kraus, 1957a).

Forsius (1932a), who says to know the mine well, writes that it can easilly be distiunguished from Diptera mines in the petiole because the mine is not black, but rather transparant, “like an air bubble”.

hostplants

Blechnaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Polypodiaceae Woodsiaceae; narrowly polyphgous

Athyrium filix-femina.

Shaw & Bailey (1991a) found a few mines also on Dryopteris dilatata. Liston (1995b) mentions, next to Lady-fern, Polypodium vulgare and Blechnum. Forsius (1932a) describes the species in Latvia as common and Athyrium and “Onoclea”. It is not clear what was intened by that latter name: this fern genus has no native European representatives.

phenology

Larvae found in July (de Meijere, 1911a). Two generations in Latvia, the first, most common, with larvae in June (Forsius, 1932a).

BENELUX

BE recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

NE recorded (de Meijere, 1911a; van Ooststroom, 1976a).

LUX recorded (Chevin, Ellis & Schneider, 2011a).

distribution within Europe

From Sweden and Finland to Italy, and from Ireland to the Ukraina (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

larva

The larva is violet in colour with a grey brown head and clear thoracic feet (de Meijere, 1911a, Hering, 1957a). Forsius (1932a) however describes the larva as whitish, turning violet only just before pupation At that point also the grey frontal plate looses its marks, which looked like a white horse shoe with its arms diverging downwards. Anal valves sepia.

synonyms

Heptameles ochroleucus.

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Blank ao (1998a), Chevin, Ellis & Schneider (2011a), Forsius (1932a), Hering (1957a), Liston (1995b), Lorenz & Kraus (1957a), de Meijere (1911a), van Ooststroom (1976a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2006a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Shaw & Bailey (1991a), Sønderup (1949a), Taeger, Blank & Liston (2006a), Taeger ao (1998a).

mod 18.xii.2017