Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Fenusa ulmi

Fenusa ulmi Sundevall, 1847

elm leafminer

Fenusa ulmi: mine on Ulmus glabra

Ulmus glabra, Nieuwendam

Fenusa ulmi: mine on Ulmus glabra, frass

the fresh frass often lies in long pearl chains

Fenusa ulmi mines

Ulmus glabra, Belgium, prov. Liège, Hucconge: often several mines in a leaf © Jean-Yves Baugnée


Very clear blotch, containing a yellow white larva. The final mine may occupy a sizable part of the leaf. The mine usually starts in a vein axil, never at the leaf margin (Liston, 1994a); in large leaves the mine remains confined between to lateral veins. Frass in black grains, initially often in long pearl chains, in older mines in loose grains.


Ulmaceae, monophagous

Ulmus americana, glabra, x hollandica, minor, rubra.

Occasioned by the work of Altenhofer (1980a,b,c) it was discovered by Liston (1993b) that, what had been considered up to then as F. ulmi actually conisted of three species. Liston’s study was limited to the adults, and no other differentiating characters were published than that each was living on one elm species: ulmi on Ulmus glabra, carpinifoliae on U. minor, and altenhoferi on U. laevis; a few years later it became clear that F. carpinifoliae was to be sunk in synonymy of altenhoferi.

A reference by Maček (1999a) to Carpinus betulus a a hostplant must be dismissed.


Mines in May-June, sometimes numerous.


BE recorded (picture above).

NE recorded (Ellis: Amsterdam).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

distribution within Europe

From Scandinavia and Finland to the Pyrenees, Italy, and the Ukraine, and from the UK to Lithuania (Fauna Europaea, 2008).



Kaliofenusa, Kaliosysphinga ulmi.

Fenus ulmi = Kaliofenusa ulmi (Serville, 1823) is an insufficently known species; it may well be the valid name of F. ulmi or F. altenhoferi, but as long as the type has not been studied, if it exists at all, this cannot be decided and the the name is to be disregarded. That applies as well to references to this “species” like in Savina & Chevin.

parasitoids, predators

Chrysocharis nephereus, viridis; Minotetrastichus frontalis; Pnigalio agraules.


Males are hardly found: the species is almost fully parthenogenetic (Liston, 2007b).


Obviously, all publications prior to that of Liston (1993) refer to F. ulmi s. lat. only.

Altenhofer (1980a,b,c, 2003a), Altenhofer, Hellrigl & Mörl (2001a), Beiger (1979a), Blank ao (1998a), Buhr (1941a, 1964a), Csóka (2003a), van Frankenhuyzen & Houtman (1972a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Haase (1942a), Haris (2018a), Healy (1869a), Hering (1930e, 957a), Huber (1969a), Kirichenko, Augustin & Kenis (2018a), Lengesova (2008a), Liston (1993b, 1994a, 1995b, 2007b), Looney, Smith, Collman, ao (2016a), Maček (1999a), Matošević, Pernek, Dubravac & Barić (2009a), Michalska (1976a), Michna (1975a), Nowakowski (1954a), van Ooststroom (1976a), Pieronek (1962a), Popescu-Gorj & Drăghia (1966a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Robbins (1991a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Scobiola-Palade (1974a), Skala (1936a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Smith (1971a), Starý (1930a), Taeger, Blank & Liston (2006a), Sønderup (1949a), Stammer (2016a), Taeger ao (1998a), Viramo (1969a), Wahlgren (1944a, 1951a, 1963a), Zoerner (1969a), Zombori (1975a).

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