Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Fenusella nana

Fenusella nana (Klug, 1816)

on Betula (Alnus)

Fenusella nana: mine on Betula pendula

Betula pendula, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 24.v.2018 © László Érsek: mine, upper side

Fenusella nana: mine on Betula pendula


Fenusella nana: mine on Betula pendula

mine, lighted from behind

Fenusella nana: mine on Betula pendula

opened mine

Fenusella nana: larva

larva, dorsal and ventral

Fenusella nana: larva

head and thorax, dorsal

Fenusella nana: larva


Fenusella nana: larva

head and thorax, ventral

Fenusella nana: larva

abdomen end, ventral

Fenusella nana: occupied mine on Betula pendula

Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Mol © Carina Van Steenwinkel

Fenusella nana: larva in the mine

the larva lies belly-up in the mine

Fenusella nana: vacated mine on Betula pendula

vacated mine

Fenusella nana: two young mines

unusual: two incipient mines in the same leaf

Fenusella nana mine

Betula, Ruinen, Echtenerzand: young mine with dead larva; © Kees Boele

Fenusella nana mine

Betula pubescens, Bergen NH


Large blotch, starting from the leaf margin. The very first triangular part of the mine is filled with a dense mass of frass, caused by lateral movements of the larva that actually press the frass in this first mine segment. The mine seems full depth, but actually is upper-surface, albeit very deep and (fresh) only very weakly greenish. Pupation outside the mine.

host plants

Betulaceae, oligophagous

Alnus japonica; Betula ermanii, humilis, obscura, pendula, pubescens.


Larvae in June and July-August (Hering, 1957a).


BE recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

NE recorded (van Ooststroom, 1976a).

LUX recorded (Chevin, Ellis & Schneider, 2011a).

distribution within Europe

From Scandinavia and Finland to the Pyrenees, Italy and Bulgaria, and from Ireland until into Russia (Fauna Europaea, 2008).



Messa, Scolioneura nana; Fenusa quercus (Cameron); Scolioneura laeta Enslin, 1918.


Contrary to Fenusa pumila this species mines older, full-grown leaves in the centre of the crown (DeClerck & Shorthouse, 1985a).


Ahr (1966a), Altenhofer (1980a, 2003a), Blank ao (1998a), Buhr (1933a, 1941a, 1964a), Chevin, Ellis & Schneider (2011a), Csoka (2003a), DeClerck & Shorthouse (1985), Digweed, MacQuarrie, Langor ao (2009a), van Frankenhuyzen & Houtman (1972a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Haase (1942a), Haris (2009a), Hering (1931d, 1937c, 1957a), Kirichenko, Augustin & Kenis (2018a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kozlov, van Nieukerken, Zverev & Zvereva (2013a), Liston (1995b), Looney, Smith, Collman, ao (2016a), Maček (1999a, 2012c), Nowakowski (1954a), van Ooststroom (1976a), Pieronek (1962a), Pieronek & Soltyk (1993a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Pschorn-Walcher & Taeger (1995), Robbins (1991a), Roques, Cleary, Matsiakh & Eschem (2017a), Scobiola-Palade (1974a), Skala (1951a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Smith (1971a), Sønderup (1949a), Stammer (2016a), Taeger, Blank & Liston (2006a), Taeger ao (1998a), Viramo (1969a), Wahlgren (1944a, 1951a, 1963a).

Last modified 8.iii.2021