Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Heterarthrus microcephalus

Heterarthrus microcephalus (Klug, 1818)

Heterarthrus microcephalus:  mine on Salix spec.

Salix spec., Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Durbuy, la vieille Briqueterie de Rome © Carina Van Steenwinkel

Heterarthrus microcephalus:  mine on Salix spec.

prepupa in cocoon (another leaf)

Heterarthrus microcephalus:  mine on Salix caprea

Salix caprea, Belgium, prov.Antwerp, Meerhout © Carina Van Steenwinkel: prepupa in cocoon

Heterarthrus microcephalus mine

Salix cinerea, Reusel: mine with cocoon


Heterarthrus microcephalus mine

Salix triandra, Amsterdam

Heterarthrus microcephalus mine

Salix fragilis, Nederhorst den Berg

Heterarthrus microcephalus mine

Salix viminalis, Nederhorst den Berg


Oviposition in the very leaf tip. From there a very deep upper surface blotch extends downwards. The blotch, that is very transparant, can occupy a large part of the leaf. Mostly the entire width of the leaf is mined out, but the broad leaves of the Goat Willow are mined at one side of the midrib only. Pupation within the mine in a large, transparent, discoidal cocoon.

host plants

Salicaceae, monophagous

Salix alba, aurita, caprea, cinerea, x fragilis, myrsinifolia, pentandra, phylicifolia, purpurea, repens, starkeana, triandra, viminalis.


Larvae from July till September (Hering, 1957a), in two generations (Lorenz & Kraus, 1957a).


BE rcorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

NE recorded (van Ooststroom, 1976a).

LUX recorded (Chevin, Ellis & Schneider, 2011a).

distribution within Europe

From Scandinavia and Finland to the Pyrenees, Italy and Bulgaria, and from Ireland to Russia (Fauna Europaea, 2008).



Phyllotoma microcephala.


Very young mines are still shallow and opaque, and can strongly resemble those of Agromyza albitarsis. The larvae of that species are maggots, and its mines are not associated with the leaf tip.

The lower picture above is unusual because the mine did not start at the utter leaf tip. (Two other mines of the same sample were normal.)


Altenhofer (2003a), Beiger (1979a), Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Blank ao (1998a), Buhr (1933a, 1941a, 1964a), Chevin, Ellis & Schneider (2011a), Drăghia (1972a, 1974a), Hering (1957a), Hoop (1983a), Huber (1969a), Liston (1995b, 2007b, 2011a), Liston, Mutanen & Viitasaari (2019a), Lorenz & Kraus (1957a), Michalska (1972a), Nowakowski (1954a), van Ooststroom (1976a), Pieronek (1962a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Robbins (1991a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Schedl (2006a), Scobiola-Palade (1974a), Sønderup (1949a), Taeger, Blank & Liston (2006a), Taeger ao (1998a), Viramo (1969a), Wahlgren (1944a, 1963a), Zoerner (1969a, 1970a), Zombori (1976a).

Last modified 17.v.2020