Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Heterarthrus nemoratus

Heterarthrus nemoratus (Fallén, 1808)

Heterarthrus nemoratus mine

Betula pubescens, Mantingerzand

Heterarthrus nemoratus: mine on Betula pendula

Betula pendula, België, prov. Limburg, Koersel © Carina Van Steenwinkel

Heterarthrus nemoratus: larva

same mine, lighted from behind

Heterarthrus nemoratus: mine on Betula pendula

larva in the mine; the arrow points to a slit along the midrib, probably used the eject frass

Heterarthrus nemoratus: cocoon in Betula pendula

Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Mol © Carina Van Steenwinkel:leaf with old mine and cocoon


Large blotch, beginning at the leaf margin (there no accumulation of frass). The oldest part of the mine with a characteristic, wine red colour. Most of the frass is ejected through a narrow slit in the leaf margin (sometimes also along the midrib). The larva makes an discoidal cocoon within the mine. Hibernation in the larval stage.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula humilis, pubescens, pendula.


Larvae in August – September (Altenhofer, 1980b).


BE recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

NE recorded (van Ooststroom 1976a); rare.

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

distribution within Europe

From Sweden and Finland to the Pyrenees, Italy (not quite cetain) and Romania, and from Ireland to the Ukraine (Fauna Europaea, 2008).


Ripper (1931a), Lorenz & Kraus (1957a), Lindquist (1959a) and Smith (1971a) describe the larva. Thoracal feet reduced to stumps. Prosternum with a large dark patch; meso- and metasternum with a small dark spot. Pronotum with a large rectangular black sclerite. In the prepual stage, when the larva does not feed any more, all pigmentation has disappeared.


Phyllotoma nemorata.

parasitoids, predators

Hemiptarsenus ornatus; Sympiesis sericeicornis.


Around 1927 accidentally introduced into the United States New Hampshire, Massachusetts), causing large-sclae damage to the birch forests (“In areas where white birch was the predominating tree whole hillsides and valleys appeared as if fire had swept through the stands”) (Ripper, 1931a).

The specis parthenogenetic (Brown 1959a). Preference for the older leaves (Lindquist, 1959a).


Altenhofer (1980b, 2003a), Blank ao (1998a), Bouček (1959a), Brown (1959a), Buhr (1941a, 1964a), Digweed ao (2009a), Heibo, Lønnve, Barstad ao (2014a), Hering (1927b, 1937c, 1957a), Kirichenko, Augustin & Kenis (2018a), Kozlov, van Nieukerken, Zverev & Zvereva (2013a), Kruse, Smith & Schiff (2010a), Lindquist (1959a), Liston (1995b), Liston, Mutanen & Viitasaari (2019a), Looney, Smith, Collman, ao (2016a), Lorenz & Kraus (1957a), Michalska (1976a), Nyman, Zinovjev, Vikberg & Farrell (2006a), van Ooststroom (1976a), Pieronek (1962a), Pieronek & Soltyk (1993a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Pschorn-Walcher & Taeger (1995), Ripper (1931a), Robbins (1991a), Scobiola-Palade (1974a), Skala (1951a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Smith (1971a), Sønderup (1949a), Taeger, Blank & Liston (2006a), Taeger ao (1998a), Viramo (1969a), Wahlgren (1944a, 1963a).

Last modified 31.v.2022