Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Parna apicalis

Parna apicalis (Brischke, 1888)

on Tilia

Parna apicalis: occupied mine on Tilia platyphyllos

Tilia platyphyllos, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 22.iv.2019 © László Érsek

Parna apicalis: occupied mine on Tilia platyphyllos


Parna apicalis: frass

larva in the mine

Parna apicalis: frass


Parna apicalis: larva

larva, dorsal and ventral

Parna apicalis: larva


Parna apicalis: larvav

head, dorsal

Parna apicalis: larva


Parna apicalis: larva

abdomen end, ventral

Parna apicalis: mine on Tilia sp.

Tilia, Belgium, prov. East Flanders, Harelbeke-De Gavers, 25.iv.2014 © Zoë Vanstraelen

Parna apicalis: larva


Parna apicalis mine

Tilia x vulgaris, Nieuwendam, 25.v.2005


Parna apicalis & tenella mines

Tilia sp., France, Pyrénées Central, St. Savin: comparison of the mines of P. apicalis, right, and P. tenella, left; © Tineke Cramer


A flat blotch at the leaf margin. The leaf is not rolled inwards over the mine. Rarely more than one mine per leaf. Mines mainly in the canopy. Frass grains elliptic, c. 0.5 mm long.

host plants

Malvaceae, monophagous

Tilia americana, cordata, x euchlora, x europaea, x moltkei, mongolica, platyphyllos, tomentosa.


Mines in May (Altenhofer, 1980a; Halstead, 2009a); on the base of the picture above, also in April already.


No adults of this species are known from the Netherlands (Ad Mol in litt, 2008). As far as known, the picture above documents the first observation in Belgium. Not known from Luxemburg (Fauna Europaea, 2014).

distribution within Europe

From Finland and Poland to Britain, the Pyrenees and Alps (Edmunds ao, 2007a; Fauna Europaea, 2008); Hungary (Edmunds).


Larvae of the genus Parna are discussed by Lorenz & Kraus (1957a), Altenhofer (1980a), and Altenhofer & Pschorn-Walcher (1998a), but no characters differentiating between apicalis and P. tenella are known so far.


Parna reseri Liston 1993; P. kamijoi: Chevin, 1983 nec Togashi, 1980.

Altenhofer (1980a,b,c) extensively dealt with the European sawflies mining on trees. This induced Liston (1993c) to study Altenhofer’s Parna material. He discovered that part of it belonged to an undescribed species, which was described was P. reseri. Later reseri turned out to be a synonym of P. apicalis (Brischke) (Liston, Taeger & Blank, 2006a). The implication is that all material identified as tenella before 1993 is in need of revision.


As far as known the species is entirely parthenogenetic.


Altenhofer (1980a,b,c), Altenhofer & Pschorn-Walcher (1998a), Blank ao (1998a), Chevin (1983a), Edmunds (2016a), Edmunds, Hind, Liston & Palmer (2003a, 2007a), Haarder & Liston (2018a), Halstead (2009a), Liston (1993c, 1995b, 2006a), Liston, Knight, Heibo, ao (2012a), Liston, Taeger & Blank (2006a), Matošević, Pernek, Dubravac & Barić (2009a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Roller & Macek (2017a), Savina, Chevin & Liston (2014a), Taeger, Altenhofer, Blank, ao (1998a), Taeger, Blank & Liston (2006a), Tomov & Krusteva (2007a).

Last modified 29.iv.2020