Parna apicalis (Brischke, 1888)
Tilia platyphyllos, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 22.iv.2019 © László Érsek
larva in the mine
larva, dorsal and ventral
abdomen end, ventral
Tilia, Belgium, prov. East Flanders, Harelbeke-De Gavers, 25.iv.2014 © Zoë Vanstraelen
Tilia x vulgaris, Nieuwendam, 25.v.2005
Tilia sp., France, Pyrénées Central, St. Savin: comparison of the mines of P. apicalis, right, and P. tenella, left; © Tineke Cramer
A flat blotch at the leaf margin. The leaf is not rolled inwards over the mine. Rarely more than one mine per leaf. Mines mainly in the canopy. Frass grains elliptic, c. 0.5 mm long.
Tilia americana, cordata, x euchlora, x europaea, x moltkei, mongolica, platyphyllos, tomentosa.
Mines in May (Altenhofer, 1980a; Halstead, 2009a); on the base of the picture above, also in April already.
No adults of this species are known from the Netherlands (Ad Mol in litt, 2008). As far as known, the picture above documents the first observation in Belgium. Not known from Luxemburg (Fauna Europaea, 2014).
distribution within Europe
From Finland and Poland to Britain, the Pyrenees and Alps (Edmunds ao, 2007a; Fauna Europaea, 2008); Hungary (Edmunds).
Larvae of the genus Parna are discussed by Lorenz & Kraus (1957a), Altenhofer (1980a), and Altenhofer & Pschorn-Walcher (1998a), but no characters differentiating between apicalis and P. tenella are known so far.
Parna reseri Liston 1993; P. kamijoi: Chevin, 1983 nec Togashi, 1980.
Altenhofer (1980a,b,c) extensively dealt with the European sawflies mining on trees. This induced Liston (1993c) to study Altenhofer’s Parna material. He discovered that part of it belonged to an undescribed species, which was described was P. reseri. Later reseri turned out to be a synonym of P. apicalis (Brischke) (Liston, Taeger & Blank, 2006a). The implication is that all material identified as tenella before 1993 is in need of revision.
As far as known the species is entirely parthenogenetic.
Altenhofer (1980a,b,c), Altenhofer & Pschorn-Walcher (1998a), Blank ao (1998a), Chevin (1983a), Edmunds (2016a), Edmunds, Hind, Liston & Palmer (2003a, 2007a), Haarder & Liston (2018a), Halstead (2009a), Liston (1993c, 1995b, 2006a), Liston, Knight, Heibo, ao (2012a), Liston, Taeger & Blank (2006a), Matošević, Pernek, Dubravac & Barić (2009a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Roller & Macek (2017a), Savina, Chevin & Liston (2014a), Taeger, Altenhofer, Blank, ao (1998a), Taeger, Blank & Liston (2006a), Tomov & Krusteva (2007a).