Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Profenusa pygmaea

Profenusa pygmaea (Klug, 1816)

on Castanea, Quercus

Profenusa pygmaea: mine on Castanea sativa

Castanea sativa, Belgium, prov. Flemish Brabant, Lubeek, Pellenberg kliniek, 17.vii.2021 © Carina Van Steenwinkel

Profenusa pygmaea: mine on Castanea sativa

larva in the mine

Profenusa pygmaea: occupied mine on Quercus petraea

Quercus petraea, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 24.v.2018 © László Érsek

Profenusa pygmaea: occupied mine on Quercus petraea

lighted from behind

Profenusa pygmaea: mine with prepupa

opened mine with prepupa

Profenusa pygmaea: occupied mine on Quercus cerris

Quercus cerris, Hungary, Budapest, Hűvösvölgy, 4.vii.2018 © László Érsek

Profenusa pygmaea: mine on Quercus rubra

Quercus rubra, Belgium, prov. Limburg, de Hoefaert-Lanaken, © Carina Van Steenwinkel

Profenusa pygmaea: mine on Quercus rubra

the mine

Profenusa pygmaea: larva

the larva

Profenusa pygmaea mine

Quercus robur, het Twiske,

Profenusa pygmaea mine

same mine

Profenusa pygmaea mines

Quercus palustris, Putten, Schovenhorst, 12.viii.2011; on this species the mines are unusually large, probably because the leaves are relatively thin.


Upper surface blotch, often rather narrow where it begins, but without a real preceding corridor. Frass in gradually larger grains scattered in the mine. Never more than one larva in a mine. Pupation outside the mine.

host plants

Fagaceae, oligophagous

Castanea sativa; Quercus aliena, cerris, dalechampii, ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis, palustris, petraea, pubescens, robur, rubra.

Buhr (1941a) remarks that all mines on sweet chestnut were unfinished. That may indicate that Castanea is not the real host plant.


Larvae in June – July (Hering, 1957a); one generation (Robbins, 1991a).


BE recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

NE recorded (van Ooststroom, 1976a).

LUX recorded (Chevin, Ellis & Schneider, 2011a).

distribution within Europe

All of Europe, perhaps excluding the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2008).



Fenusella pygmaea.

parasitoids, predators

Achrysocharoides cilla; Chrysocharis nitetis; Closterocerus trifasciatus; Pnigalio pectinicornis.


Altenhofer (2003a), Amsel & Hering (1931a), Beiger (1979a), Blank ao (1998a), Buhr (1933a, 1941a, 1964a), Chevin, Ellis & Schneider (2011a), Csóka (2003a), Drăghia (1968a, 1971a, 1972a), van Frankenhuyzen & Houtman (1972a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Haase (1942a), Haris (2012a), Hering (1924a, 1932f,g, 1934a, 1957a), Hoop (1983a), Huber (1969a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kvičala (1938a), Liston (1995b), Liston & Späth (2005a), Lorenz & Kraus (!957a), Maček (1999a, 2012c), Matošević, Pernek, Dubravac & Barić (2009a), Meijer, Smit, Beukeboom & Schilthuizen (2012a), Michalska (1970a, 1972a, 1976a), Nowakowski (1954a), van Ooststroom (1976a), Pieronek (1962a), Robbins (1991a), Scobiola-Palade (1974a), Skala (1951a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Stammer (2016a), Stolnicu (2007a, 2008a), Starý (1930a), Taeger, Blank & Liston (2006a), Taeger ao (1998a), Tomov & Dimitrov (2007a), Ureche (2010a), Viramo (1969a), Wahlgren (1944a, 1951a, 1063a), van Wielink (2020a), Zoerner (1969a, 1970a), Zombori (1975a).

Last modified 2.vii.2022