Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Scolioneura betuleti

Scolioneura betuleti (Klug, 1816)

Scolioneura betuleti mine

Betula pendula, Beegder Heide, 14.x.2001

Scolioneura betuleti: mines on Alnus viridis

Alnus viridis, Scotland, Orkney @ Derek Mayes

Scolioneura betuleti: larva



Large, transparent, in fresh condition pale green blotch that begins at the leaf margin, without an accumulation of frass. Mine and larva are undistinguishable from those of S. vicina, but vicina larvae live from mid May till mid June, while the larvae of betuleti are found only in August – October (Altenhofer & Taeger, 1998a).

host plants

Betulaceae, oligophagous

Alnus viridis; Betula alleghaniensis, ermanii, humilis, obscura, pendula, pubescens.

The occurrence on Alnus viridis is understandable, because this species is considered an intergeneric hybrid between Alnus and Betula. The reference by Maček (1999a) of Alnus glutinosa, however, is quite surprising.


Univoltine. Larvae in August – October.


BE recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

NE waargenomen (van Ooststroom, 1976a).

LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

distribution within Europe

Entire Europe, with possible exception of Ireland and the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2008).



Scolioneura betulae (Zaddach, 1859).

A study by Leppänen, Altenhofer, Liston & Nyman (2012a) has shown that at the DNA-level there is no difference with Scolioneura vicina. Probably both species will have to be synonymised, in which case the oldest name, viz. betuleti, will be the valid one.


Especially numerous on seedlings.


References before 1998 refer to betuleti + vicina.

Ahr (1966a), Altenhofer (2003a), Altenhofer, Hellrigl & Mörl (2001a), Altenhofer & Taeger (1998a), Beiger (1979a), Blank ao (1998a), Buhr (1933a, 1941a, 1964a), Edmunds (2008a), van Frankenhuyzen & Houtman (1972a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Haarder & Liston (2018a), Hartig (1939a), Hering (1927b, 1937c, 1957a), Hoop (1983a), Huber (1969a), Kirichenko, Augustin & Kenis (2018a), Kollár (2007a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kozlov, van Nieukerken, Zverev & Zvereva (2013a), Leppänen, Altenhofer, Liston & Nyman (2012a), Liston (1993b, 1995b), Lorenz & Kraus (1957a), Maček (1999a, 2012c), Martínez de Murguía, Angeles Vázquez & Nieves-Aldrey (2004a), Nowakowski (1954a), Nyman, Zinovjev, Vikberg & Farrell (2006a), van Ooststroom (1976a), Pieronek (1962a), Pieronek & Soltyk (1993a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Pschorn-Walcher & Taeger (1995), Ripper (1931a), Robbins (1991a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Schedl (1976a, 2006a), Scobiola-Palade (1974a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Stammer (2016a), Starý (1930a), Taeger, Blank & Liston (2006a), Taeger ao (1998a), Tuomi, Niemelä & Mannila (1981a), Viramo (1969a), Wahlgren (1944a, 1951a, 1963a), Zoerner (1969a, 1970a).

Last modified 8.iii.2021