Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Euura proxima

Euura proxima (Serville, 1823)

on Salix

Euura proxima gall

Salix alba, Nieuwendam: upperside

Euura proxima gall


Euura proxima gall

transverse section

Euura proxima gall

Salix x fragilis, Nieuwendam; the young larva is remarkably small compared to the size of the gall

Euura proxima larva

Salix alba, Nederhorst den Berg; larva

Euura proxima larva

terminal abdomen segments

Euura proxima: fungi erupting from a gall

Salix alba, Vreeland, Lambertskade: galls form a breeding ground for fungi


Up to 20 galls in a leaf; they are bright reddish above, yellow or pink below. The surface usually covered with small ridges or protuberances. Generally bivoltine.

host plants

Salicaceae, monophagous

Salix alba, x blanda, babylonica, x fragilis, excelsa, pentandra.

In a botanical garden also Salix nigra (Groom).


Third abdominal segment with 4 dorsal annulets. Suranal plate with widely spaced pseudocerci.


Pontania proxima; Nematus, Pontania, gallicola Stephens, 1835.


Archarius salicivorus, ? A. crux; Euphranta toxoneura.

parasitoids, predators

Pnigalio agraules, nemati, soemius, xerophilus; Pseudotorymus salicis; Pteromalus dolichurus.


Member of the Euura proxima species group.

unusual galls

Normally the underside of the galls is more or less smooth and cylindrical. Contrariwise, the pictures below show a leaf where the undersides of the galls are conicical, apparently with a pore at the tip. On the internet several more pictures can be found with similar galls, indicating that it is not an isolated phenomenon. An explanation cannot be given. On opening of the galls no inquilines were found.

Euura proxima: unusual galls on Salix x fragilis

Salix x fragilis, Haren 19.viii.2017 © Arnold Grosscurt<

Euura proxima: unusual galls on Salix x fragilis

same leaf, underside

Euura proxima: unusual gall on Salix x fragilis



Abras, Fassotte, Chandelier & Cavelier (2008a), Altenhofer, Hellrigl & Mörl (2001a), Askew (1985a), Béguinot (2001c, 2002d,e,f,h, 2003a, 2005a, 2006a,c, 2007b, 2012a), Bellmann (2012a), Beneš (2015a), Blanes-Dalmau, Caballero-López & Pujade-Villar (2017a), Boevé, Peter, Jacobs, ao (2009a), Braggion (2013a), Buhr (1965a), Chinery (2011a), Cogolludo (1921a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Deckert & Deckert (2016a), Flügel (2016a), Georgiev, Ljubomirov & Petrov (2002a), Groom (2011a), Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a), Haris (2009a, 2012a), Hellrigl (2004b), Houard (1908a), Ilie & Marinescu (2011a), Kollár (2011a), Koops (2013a), Kopelke (1999a, 2005a), Lehmann & Flügel (2012a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Liston & Jacobs (2012a), Liston, Jacobs & Prous (2015a), Liston, Heibo, Prous ao (2017a), Liston & Späth (2008a), Mol (2013a), Perović, Merdić & Perović (2006a), Popescu (2003a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Schedl (2011a), Tavares (1905a), Tomasi (2003a, 2014a).

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