Cynaeda dentalis (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

starry pearl

Cynaeda dentalis mine

Echium vulgare, Belgium, prov. Liège, Herstal, Petite Bacnure © Jean-Yves Baugnée

mine

Large, full depth blotch, mainly in the lower leaves. The opaque centre is strongly inflated. Here the frass is concentrated, and in the end also pupation takes place here. The larvae can also stay in a gall-like, swollen section of the stem. As a result of the mine the leaf is strongly malformed.

hostplants

Boragonaceae, oligophagous

Anchusa; Echium italicum, vulgare; Onosma.

Echium is the most important hostplant.

phenology

Larva from autumn till June next year (Hering, 19557a); they are full grown in end May, early June (Buhr, 1935b).

BENELUX

BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).

LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

All Europe (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

larva

notes

The mines can occur either in the basal part of the leaf or in the tip, and the larva even can cause stem galls (Hering, 1957a). Buhr (1964a) writes that stam galls occur only in exceptional situations.

references

Aguiar & Karsholt (2006a), Ahr (1966a), Amsel & Hering (1933a), Buhr (1935b, 1964a), Grabe (1955a), Hering (1955b, 1957a), Houard (1909a), Huemer (2012a), Huertas Dionisio (2007a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), De Prins & Steeman (2011a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Szőcs (1977a), Tomasi (2014a).

mod 27.viii.2018